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Introducing. Eco. logy. Ecology. the study of the relationships between biotic and abiotic factors in environments. eco (G) root home, abode. log, -o, y (G) suffix study of. eco climate. eco system. eco tourism. epidemi ology. climat ology. zo ology. Ecosystem.
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Eco logy Ecology the study of the relationships between biotic and abiotic factors in environments eco (G) root home, abode log, -o, y (G) suffix study of ecoclimate ecosystem ecotourism epidemiology climatology zoology
Ecosystem includes all abiotic and biotic factors in one particular environment Biotic Factors Abiotic Factors the living parts of an ecosystem the nonliving parts of an ecosystem
Examples of Ecosystems • Lake - Rainforest • Swamps - drop of water • Desert - grasslands • Ocean - forest • Tundra - mountains • Taiga - pond • Savannah - river • Coral reef
Bio Biotic Factors include plants, animals, fungi, microorganisms bio(s), bio(t) (G) root life biotechnology biomechanics biosphere biofeedback biostatistics biography biotic biology
A Abiotic Factors include air, water, soil, temperature, wind, source of energy (usually sun) a, an (G) prefix not, without abiotic amoral amusia atoxic
Pond Ecosystem: List examples of the biotic and abiotic factors in this image.
Examples of Ecosystems Coral Reef in Belize Mountains in Colorado Arizona Desert
Ecosystems do not necessarily have clear boundaries due to biotic and abiotic changes can change daily as things move from one ecosystem to another Biotic Abiotic migration, seed dispersal flood, erosion, drought
Biotic Factors interact with each other in complex ways parasitism mutualism competition such as also interact with abiotic factors in the ecosystem dependent upon water, minerals, temperature, light
Each ecosystem contains different habitats. • A habitat is the place where an organism lives. It supplies all the biotic and abiotic factors the organism needs to survive. • Ex. A rotting log is a perfect habitat for insects, fungi and worms. • Ex. A sea star finds food and comfortable temperatures in shallow ocean water.
How an organism acts within its ecosystem is called its niche. • Examples of niches: • Some animals eat other organisms, and some eat only plants. • Some plants grow in sunny spots, while others need shade. • Worms and bacteria break down dead organisms for energy and recycle the nutrients into the ecosystem.
Biome a major regional or global biotic community, a super ecosystem, defined chiefly by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate
Major Biomes of the World desert grassland tropical rain forest deciduous forest coniferous forest tundra ocean
biome ecosystem community population organism organ system organ tissue Levels of Organization smallest unit of living things large region with typical plants and animals that includes several ecosystems group of different kinds of tissues working together group of organs working together all living and nonliving things interacting within a certain area all organisms of the same kind living in one area all interacting populations in an ecosystem one individual living thing group of similar cells organized to work together cell
A community is made up of all the populations that live in an area at the same time. • Ex. A wetland community in North Carolina might include white-tailed deer, raccoons, black bears, turtles, snakes, fish and many insects. It would also include all the grasses, shrubs, and trees living in the same area.
All the organisms of a species that live in the same place at the same time make up a population.
How does energy flow through an ecosystem? The ability to do work or cause change What is energy? Energy Pyramid You lose 90% of your energy when you go to the next level. Decomposers eat what’s leftover. Consumer: carnivores (animal eaters) 100 units of energy Consumer: herbivores (plant eaters) 1,000 units of energy 10,000 units of energy Producer: plants
Only 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next. Example: It takes 100 kgs of plant materials (producers) to support 10 kgs of herbivores It takes 10 kgs of herbivores to support 1 kg of 1st level predator RULE OF 10
What is a food chain? The flow of energy of one organism eating another organism Turn your energy pyramid into a food chain: Producer Consumer 2nd level Decomposer consumer Lion Bacteria Grass Zebras S:\FACULTY\6th Science\Energy flow through an ecosystem.asf
What is a food web? The pattern of overlapping food chains in an ecosystem FOOD WEBS SHOW HOW MANY ANIMALS ARE INTERCONNECTED BY DIFFERENT PATHS. FOOD WEBS show how plants and animals are connected in many ways to help them all survive. FOOD CHAINS follow just one path as animals find food. S:\FACULTY\6th Science\Food web.asf Food chains and food webs.asf
Make your own food web. • Include at least 3 different food chains. • Include at least 3 illustrations. • Hawk • Phytoplankton • Algae • Mouse • Snake • Mosquito Larva • Fish • Grasshopper
Bibliography Arms. (1996). Environmental Science. Orlando,Florida: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. McLaren, James E, and Rotundo, Lisa (1985). Heath Biology. D. C. Heath and Company. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition. (1992). Houghton Mifflin Company.