19th Century Impressionism Impressionist painting comprises the work produced between about1867 and 1886 by a group of artists who shared a set of related approaches and techniques. The most conspicuous characteristic of Impressionism was an attempt to accurately and objectively record visual reality in terms of transient effects of light and color. It is characterized chiefly by concentration on the general impression produced by a scene or object and the use of unmixed primary colors and small strokes to simulate actual reflected light.
Impressionism The principal Impressionist painters were Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Alfred Sisley, Berthe Morisot, Armand Guillaumin, and Frédéric Bazille, who worked together, influenced each other, and exhibited together independently. Edgar Degas and Paul Cézanne also painted in an Impressionist style for a time in the early 1870s. The established painter Édouard Manet, whose work in the 1860s greatly influenced Monet and others of the group, himself adopted the Impressionist approach about 1873.
MANET, Edouard. Luncheon on the Grass (Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe), 1863
Manet, Edouard, Olympia, 1863. Oil on canvas, 130.5 x 190 cm, Musee d'Orsay, Paris
Manet, EdouardOlympiaDETAIL of hand1863Oil on canvas51 3/8 x 74 3/4 in. (130.5 x 190 cm)Musee d'Orsay, Paris
Edouard Manet. The Dead Toreador. 1864. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.
Edouard Manet. The Fifer. 1866. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.
Manet: The Balcony, 1868-69 GOYA, Francisco Mayas on the Balcony, 1811.
Manet, Edouard, Races at Longchamp, c. 1867. Oil on canvas17 1/4 x 33 1/4 in. (43.9 x 84.5 cm), The Art Institute of Chicago
Edouard Manet. The Execution of the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico. 1867-1868. Oil on canvas. Staatliche Kunsthalle, Mannheim, Germany.
Edouard Manet. The Railway. 1873. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.
Manet. Monet Painting in His Floating Studio , 1874, Munich. Notice the painter's passion for open-air painting.
Manet: Le serveuse de bocks (The Waitress),1879. Oil on canvas, 77.5 x 65 cm Musee d'Orsay, Paris
Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergeres, 1881-82. Oil on canvas, 96 x 130 cm. Courtauld Institute Galleries, London
Manet, EdouardA Bar at the Folies-BergeresDETAIL of barmaid1881-82Oil on canvas 96 x 130 cmCourtauld Institute Galleries, London
Monet, Madame Gaudibert, 1868, oil on canvas, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
Jeanne-Marguerite Lecadre in the Garden, 1866, oil on canvas, The Hermitage, St. Petersburg.
Monet, The Women in the Garden, 1866-67, oil on canvas, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
Monet, Points of Rock Formations at Belle Ille, 1867
Claude Monet,Garden at Sainte-Adresse, 1867, Oil on canvas, 98.1 x 129.9 cm. MMOA, New York
Monet, Boulevard des Capucines 1873.
Monet, Boulevard des Capucines 1873. (detail)
Monet, La PromenadeWoman with a Parasol, 1875, National Gallery of Art at Washington D.C.
Monet, La Japonaise (Camille Monet in Japanese Costume), 1876, oil on canvas, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Claude Monet: Gare Saint Lazare: Arrival of a train, 1877. Oil on canvas, Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University.
Monet, Rue Montargueil with Flags, 1878.
Claude Monet: Poplars on the Epte, 1891; Philadelphia Museum of Art. Monet painted the tall poplars on the banks of the river Epte near his house at Giverny under varying climatic and seasonal conditions in 1890 and again in 1891. A row of tall vertical stems backed by a receding line of other poplars provided the basic arrangement which he observed from his boat. He began his series of Haystacks before he had finished with the Poplars, a distant line of trees often forming a background. In both series he took enormous pains to wait for and entrap exactly the light each picture demanded. Yet in spite of the stubborn effort made with the aim of attaining a complete objective truth, causing him to take out a whole set of canvases to the chosen site on which he could work one at a time as a particular phase of light allowed, another element insidiously crept in. The subject in constant repetition came to matter less and less; aesthetic considerations apart from a scientific naturalism came into play. The slenderness of the poplars seemed to take on something of the exaggerated elegance of the contemporaneous art nouveau. The color scheme became more of a contrived and artificially heightened contrast between blues and purples, oranges and yellows. The new aspect of Monet's art after he had reached the age of fifty can be appreciated in the ecstatic color of this example. With the public the series were a great success, the Haystacks especially. Fifteen of them exhibited at Durand-Ruel's were all sold within a few days at 3,000 to 4,000 francs each.
Claude Monet: Poplars along the River Epte, Autumn1891 (260 Kb); Oil on canvas, 100 x 65 cm (39 3/8 x 25 5/8 in); Private collection
Claude Monet: Poplars on the Epte, 1891, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh.