chapter 2 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 2 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 2

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 18
pepin

Chapter 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

146 Views
Download Presentation
Chapter 2
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 2 Ancient India 1500 – 100 BC

  2. Background to the Emergence of Civilization in India • Harappan Civilization: A Fascinating Enigma • Culture • Political • Religious • Food • Agriculture / Trade / Economic • Arrival of the Aryans, c. 1500 B.C.E. • Early Aryans • Political • Legal • The Mauryan Empire • Chandragupta Maurya 324-301 BC • Arthasastra

  3. Caste and Class: Social Structures in Ancient India • Daily Life in Ancient India • The Economy of Ancient India • The Religious World of Ancient India • Hinduism • Reincarnation • Buddhism • Janism and Sikhism • The Rule of the Fishes: India after the Mauryas • The Exuberant World of Indian Culture • Literature • Architecture • Conclusion

  4. I. Background to the Emergence of Civilization in India • 3000 BC • Two of the worlds religions: Hinduism and Buddhism originated in India • Sikhism and Islam • history that dates back nearly 5000 years. • Geographical divisions

  5. II. Harappan Civilization: A Fascinating Enigma • Indus river, Harrapan civilization began. • Today versus 6000 years ago • Harappa – city unearthed

  6. Villages in the Indus valley 7000 B.C.E. • Harappa a city more than 3 ½ mile in circumference with wall over 40 feet thick • I. CULTURE • Walls in Harappa – 40 feet thick, 3.5 miles around city. • Walls, roads, and square mud brick buildings. • held as many as perhaps 35,000 people • Within walled city were walled neighborhoods • Architecture was functional with little artistic design • Pottery and sculpture shows artistic inclinations • II. POLITICAL • III. RELIGIOUS • IV. FOOD: • V. AGRICULTURAL AND TRADE / ECONOMIC • Textiles and foodstuffs • TRADERS • Ship trading and caravans over land. In one word, trading probably best describes the Harappan civilization.

  7. III. Arrival of the Aryans, c. 1500 B.C.E. • I. The Early Aryans • destroyed about 1500 BC • Invasion by Aryans • Social decay • Epidemic or natural phenomena • Iron • Writing • II. POLITICAL • Raja • Maharajas • III. LEGAL • Dharma • Until Alexander in 326

  8. IV. The Mauryan Empire • I. Chandragupta Maurya (324-301 B.C.E.) • centralized the government • large army • Similarity to kings of Europe • Governors would appoint magistrates to manage districts. • Village at base of power structure, and village governed by a council – usually hereditary (wealthy families). • I. Arthasastra,a treatise on politics

  9. V. Caste and Class: Social Structures in Ancient India • Aryans arrived with a structure previously established. • The Caste System • Varna • Level 1: Leadership/Religious (known as Brahmins) • Level 2: Warriors (kshatriya) • Level 3: Commoner (Vaisyas) • Level 4: Sudras (mass bulk of population) • Level 5: Outcasts / Pariahs / untouchables • TECHNICALLY CASTES WERE absolute. NO change ever could occur. • Practically, more likely during early times 1500 – 500 BC – some mobility. • Caste taboos • Jati

  10. VI. Daily Life in Ancient India • Centered around the family • Individual not important – family unit important. • For most part, a patriarchal society • In homes, not uncommon to find 2-3 generations living together • Oldest male possessed legal authority over entire family unit. • Education • Inheritance • Divorce • Procreation • Sexuality • Homosexuality • Concubines

  11. VII. The Economy • Not changed by Aryans • Was farming before and was after. Not only did it remain, but Aryans took up farming. • Developed trade and manufacturing • Agriculture expanded • Property divided when father died • Trade as far as SE Asia and China, toward Africa and Madagascar. • India shipped spices, perfumes, jewels, ivory, stones and what returned was gold, tin, lead, wine. • By 2nd century BC, use of money – when copper and gold coins introduced from Middle East regions. • Barter had been used or exchange of a type of shell (cowry shell – highly polished shell)

  12. VIII. Escaping the Wheel of Life: The Religious World of Ancient India • I. HINDUISM: • Pantheon of gods • Dyaus • Sacrifice • Asceticism • Vedas • Upanishads • Brahman. • Vishnu

  13. II. Reincarnation • 6th century BC • All living species divided into classes and it is predetermined, not to be questioned, not a cosmic accident but the inevitable result of actions that the soul has committed in the past. • Karma • Dharma governs karma • Reincarnation provided sanction for the castes, social structure, hope for the lower classes and advanced assimilation into Indian society. • Trinity of gods: Brahman the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Siva the Destroyer

  14. III. Buddhism: • 6th century BC • Northern India • Siddhartha Gautama (c. 560-480 B.C.E.) • Dedicated his life to finding cure for human suffering • Few documents or texts remain, few were written • Question whether he would have been interested in a religion or simply a reformation of what was. • Bodhi (wisdom) • Four Noble Truths • Middle Path

  15. Elements: • Karma • Reincarnation • Simplicity in life • Nirvana • Asoka, A Buddhist Monarch (269-232 B.C.E.) • Denied existence of individual soul • Our physical environment is a fiction to be transcended • Once worldly cares are forgotten so to will pain and suffering • IV. Jainism and Sikhism

  16. IX.. The Rule of the Fishes: India after the Mauryas • Asoka's death in 232 • decline in regional trade during the first millennium C.E. may have contributed to the growth of small land-based kingdoms, • political behavior of the ruling class was characterized by what Indians call the "rule of the fishes," which glorified warfare as the natural activity of the king and the aristocracy • Arthasastra

  17. X. The Exuberant World of Indian Culture • I. Literature • Sanskrit language • Rigveda – hymns used in religious ceremonies, second millennium B.C.E. • Mahabharata, 100 B.C.E. • War of cousins for control of the kingdom; interwoven are the legends of the Hindu gods • Moral confrontation and ethics • 90,000 stanzas • Bhagavadgita • Ramayana – triumph of good over evil

  18. II. Architecture and Sculpture • Pillar • Stupa • Rock chamber