Baroque Era 1600-1750
Baroque Era • Three distinct styles of the period were -Church music -Theater music -Chamber music • Music, art, and architecture of this time becomes very important to the wealthy because of its large scale productions, spectacular ideas, and major contrasts
Baroque Era • Dramatic music • First written in Florence, Italy • Soon spread throughout Europe
Baroque Era Major developments in dramatic music Oratorio- dramatic large-scale production dealing with a biblical subject -oratorio has a narrator (soloist), chorus, and orchestra -no costume, staging, or scenery used Opera- does not deal with Biblical subjects -large scale production with singing -has staging, scenery -soloists -chorus
Baroque Era Cantata- shorter work -limited to soloists -small number of chorus members -small orchestral accompaniment -written on either sacred or secular subjects Passion Music- centered specifically on the Christian Easter story
Baroque Era • Baroque music left the style of a cappela that was used in the Renaissance • The keyboard of choice was the harpsichord • During the Baroque Era, instrumental music came to the forefront, rather than vocal music • During the Baroque period, the soprano and bass voices were more important in a choral composition than the tenor and the alto
What’s happening in America? Jamestown colony founded in 1607 Henry Hudson explored what is now called the Hudson River in 1609 In 1621, Thomas Ravenscroft wrote the “Whole Booke of Psalms” (4 part compositions with texts from the Book of Psalm in the bible “The Grounds and Rules of Musick Explained” –first singing instruction book in America written by Rev. Walter of Roxbury Before this music was learned by rote and memorized
What’s happening in America? Philadelphia founded in 1682 by William Penn The famous Salem Witch trials began in 1692 1738- John Wesley founded the Methodist Church in America Robert Stevenson’s book-“Protestant Church in America” was an important resource in American music Moravian school or organ builders considered best in the New World
Alessandro Scarlatti • 1660-1725 • Born in Naples • His best known operas -La Rosaura (1690) -Teodora (1693) -Tigrane (1715) -Griselda (1721)
Claudio Monteverdi 1567-1643 Born in Cremona Wrote 9 books of Secular madrigals First opera was “Orfeo” 1613-he became conductor of St. Mark’s Basilica in Venice 1632- was ordained as a Catholic priest
Rhythm and Meter • Rhythm and meter become more defined. • Usually a single rhythm can be heard through an entire piece. • Bar lines are now used to group notes on the staff into measures
Antonio Vivaldi • 1678-1741 • Born in Italy • Nicknamed “The red-headed priest” • Wrote “The Four Seasons” • Leading violinist in St. Mark’s Basilica • Music Teacher at an orphanage for girls • Wrote numerous cantatas, oratorios, and motets • Wrote over 400 concertos
John Baptiste Lully • 1632-1687 • Developed a unique for a French Opera • First section is slow with dotted rhythm • Second section fast and lively • Third section is like the first section
Basso continuo • This helps to clarify what the harmony is. • A single bass line used to reinforce bass voices • Usually played by Harpsichord or bassoon. Can also be played by cello and other instruments.
Ground bass • Ground bass is also known as basso ostinato • Ground bass is music constructed from the bottom up. • The bass will play the same short figure over and over while other upper instruments add in above it with different melodies based on the bass.
Johann Sebastian Bach(1685-1750) • Born March 21, 1685, Eisenach, Germany • Born same year as George F. Handel • Music was a family business • Had 20 children -7 with 1st wife (his 2nd cousin) -13 with 2nd wife (singer) All children taught music • Wrote 200 sacred and secular cantatas (was not appreciated while alive)
Bach cont. Musical Handwriting was considered the most beautiful and intricate of any composer Bach received his earliest training from his father, who was a musician in Eisenach He composed in all the musical forms popular during the Baroque except for Opera. Bach’s 3 professional positions were in the towns of Arnstadt, Muhlhausen, Weimar
Bach cont. • Bach’s mother died when he was 9 and father when he was 10 • Bach did not write church music in the fourth city in which he worked, Cothen, because he was only hired to write music for court entertainment • Bach’s last job was in the city of Leipzig, Germany • Bach was blind at the end of his life • The Baroque Era ended the same year that Bach died in 1750
Johann Sebastian Bach Some of Bach’s work’s include: -The Wedding Cantata -The Peasant Cantata -The Christmas Oratorio -Magnificant -Mass in B-minor -St. John Passion -Prelude & Fugue in B-flat
Johann Sebastian Bach • Toccata & Fugue in D-minor • Sleepers Awake • Brandenburg Concerto • The Well-Tempered Clavier • A number of fugues, chorales, toccatas, solo pieces and other works
George Frideric Handel • February 23, 1685 • Born in Halle, Saxony • Born the same year as Bach • Unlike Bach, no family of musicians, • George begged his father for lessons • Becomes outstanding organist and harpsichordist • First music teacher was Zachow • Also studied violin and oboe
George Frideric Handel • 1726- Handel becomes a British citizen • Was known as the greatest composer of the oratorio • Was employed by the Elector of Hanover, who was named King George I of England • First music position was as an organist in the cathedral in Halle • Wrote 40 Italian Operas • Made and lost several fortunes • Court Musician
George Frideric Handel (1685-1754) • created music in 4 categories The Secular Cantatas • Catholic Sacred Music • Oratorios • Operas • Handel is known as the greatest composer of the oratorio during the entire Baroque Era
George Frideric Handel -Last composition was The Triumph of Time and Triumph • By the end of his life, he was also blind • He is buried in Westminster Abbey • Handel wrote a number of works that have lasted through the centuries: -St. John Passion -Coronation Anthems -Saul -Israel in Egypt
George Frideric Handel -Serse -Sansom -Judas Maccabaeus • Most outstanding oratorios: • Acis and Galatea • Esther • Alexander’s Feaste • Messiah • Jeptha
Opera • Opera is drama presented in music • Early opera was put on for Royal Weddings and such. • 1637 the first Public Opera Theater opens (these are equivalent to modern day movie theaters) • By the end of the century there were seven in Venice alone.
Opera had two major parts Recitative: Singing that imitates speech. It is mostly used for plot action, dialogue, and important situations. Aria: Extended solo that has more musical elaboration and coherence. The vocal part is more melodic, the rhythm is more consistent, and accompaniment usually uses the entire orchestra.
Henry Purcell • 1659-1695 • Born in Westminster • Father was a singer in the court of King Charles II • Purcell is the most famous English composer of the time period.
Henry Purcell He was an Organist at Westminster Abbey. He wrote sacred instrumental and theater music Most famous composition is “Dido and Aeneas”
Chronology of Baroque Era • 1600- The Baroque Era begins • 1601- Shakespeare writes Hamlet • 1602- Galileo Galilei discovers the law of gravity • 1604- Shakespeare writes Othello • 1605-Pope Paul V is crowned • 1606- Shakespeare writes Macbeth • 1607- Jamestown Colony is founded
Chronology cont. 1607- Monteverdi’s first opera, “Orfeo,” is performed 1609- Henry Hudson explores the Hudson River 1610- Louis VIII is crowned King of France 1611- The King James version of the Bible is published
Chronology cont. • 1620-The pilgrims arrive near Cape Cod on the Mayflower • 1621- Pope Gregory XV is crowned • 1625- Charles I is crowned King of England • 1630- Boston is founded by the Puritans • 1636- Harvard College is founded by Roger Williams
Chronology Cont. 1640- The first book printed in the colonies is the “Bay Psalm Book” 1643- Louis XIV is crowned King of France 1643- Marc-Antoine Charpentier is born near Paris, France 1653- Jean-Baptiste Lully is appointed court composer in Paris
Chronology Cont. • 1653- Oliver Cromwell dissolves the English Parliament • 1659- Henry Purcell is born in Westminster, England • 1660- Alessandro Scarlatti is born in Italy • 1664- New Amsterdam is renamed New York
Chronology Cont. 1665- Heinrich Schutz writes the “St. John Passion” 1666- Heinrich Schutz writes the “St. Matthew Passion” 1678- Antonio Vivaldi is born in Venice, Italy 1682- Philadelphia is founded by William Penn 1683- Jean-Phillipe Rameau is born in Venice, Italy
Chronology Cont. 1685- G.F. Handel is born in Halle, Saxony 1689- William III and Mary are crowned King and Queen of England 1692- The Salem witch trials occur in Massachusetts 1701- Yale College is founded 1704- Handel writes the “St. John Passion
Chronology Cont. 1704- Bach writes his first cantata 1714- George I is crowned King of England 1715- Louis the XV is crowned King of France 1724- Bach writes the “St. John Passion” 1727- Handel writes the “Coronation Anthems”
Chronology Cont. 1729- Bach writes the “St. Matthew Passion” 1730- Bach writes the cantata “A Mighty Fortress is Our God” 1738- Bach publishes “Mass in B-minor” 1738-Handel writes “Saul,”“Israel in Egypt,” and “Serse”
Chronology Cont. 1738- The Methodist Church is founded by John Wesley 1743- Handel writes “Samson” 1746- Handel writes “Judas Maccabaeus” 1750- The death of Johann Sebastian Bach ends the Baroque Era