History of Fashion - costume through the decades
Why Fashion? • Fashions move ever forward at a dramatic pace due to several factors: • Change of seasons • Planned obsolescence • Technological advances • Conspicuous consumption … • “a term used to describe the lavish spending on goods and services acquired mainly for the purpose of displaying income or wealth.”
1900-1910 – Edwardian Era • British class system was very rigid • However, economic and social changes also created an environment in which there was more social mobility than previously • Changes included rising interest in socialism, attention to the plight of the poor and the status of women • Together with increased economic opportunities as a result of rapid industrialization. • These changes were to be hastened in the aftermath of the first World War.
Sport • 1908 summer Olympics held in London • Sport becoming more popular • More flexible clothing styles were needed • Corset modified
Silhouettes – early 1900s • Lots of undergarments • Voluptuous shape • Low waist
Late 1900s • Paul Poiret points the way to a new silhouette, with a high waist and narrow, ankle-length skirts, 1908 • Beginnings of the ‘Hobble skirt’ • Exotica and travel influenced these changes
1910 – 1920 • First half of decade full with riches and opulence • World War 1 had a huge impact on dress in the second half of the decade (1914-1918) • Unstable money market • New fabrics and technologies developed • Women began working as there were fewer men at home • Women began to wear trousers or breeches to work on the land or in factories • Fabrics and clothing became more practical based
Silhouette - first half of the century • Column-like • Higher waists • Masculine influences beginning to appear
Silhouette - second half of the century • Fuller Skirts • Hems rising – ankle visible for the first time! • Hair beginning to be cut short into bobs
1920-1930 • Fashion entered the modern era. • The 1920s were characterized by two distinct periods of fashion • The early 1920s were relatively conservative in nature and change progressed slowly as many were reluctant to adopt the new styles • From 1925, the styles that have been associated with the Roaring Twenties were passionately embraced by the public • The public spirit was light-hearted, young and hedonistic but also very forward thinking
America • America entered a prosperous era • Women were allowed to vote • And joined the workforce • Sport was again very important and had a huge influence on clothing
Silhouette • The straight-line chemise worn with a close-fitting cloche hat became the uniform for daywear • Boyish and sporty looks were made popular by Jean Patou • Women "bobbed," or cut, their hair short to fit under the popular hats • Low-waist dresses with fullness at the hemline allowed women dance the Charleston.
1930-1940 (pre-WW2) • The light hearted forward-looking attitude and fashions of the late 1920s lingered through most of 1930 • But by the end of 1931 the effects of the Great Depression began to affect the public and a more conservative approach to fashion returned • For women, skirts became longer and the waist-line was returned up to its normal position in an attempt to bring back a more feminine look
Technological Advances • This period saw the first widespread use of synthetic fibres • Viscose was used for linings and lingerie • Nylon stockings and plastic zips became widely used
Foreign Travel • With the advances in technology and increasing availability of commercial flights foreign travel became more popular • It was now fashionable for the first time to have a sun-tan • New styles influenced by beachwear became popular • The Influence of American film was becoming increasingly important • Along with Health and fitness
1930 – 1940 Silhouette • Elsa Schiaparelli introduced a more structured look for women’s clothing • Shoulder pads and sleeve details very important • By the late '30s, emphasis was moving to the back, with halter necklines and high-necked but backless evening gowns with sleeves
1930 – 1940 Silhouette • Skirts remained at mid-calf length for day • Towards the end of the 1930s skirts were reaching just below the knee • This was a practical length and would remain in style for day dresses through the war years.
1940 – 1950: War Time restrictions • Wartime led to restrictions on the amount of new clothing people could buy • Money saving was very important • Dresses became shorter and were made with less fullness to reduce the amount of fabric needed • Make-Do-and-Mend became a national campaign
1940 – 1950: War Time Restrictions • Rations meant that nylon stocking were not available • Women would sometimes paint on stockings instead • Most women wore knee-length skirts with simply-cut blouses and square-shouldered jackets. • Trousers were becoming increasingly popular for workwear, but were still not fully acceptable for leisurewear.
Dior’s New Look • When the French fashion houses reopened after World War II, Dior introduced the "New Look" silhouette
1950 – 1960: early years • Early 1950’s was still dominated by Dior’s New Look and very feminine styling with nipped in waists and full skirts • Fashion was nostalgic and looking to the past for inspiration • Balenciaga, Dior and Chanel were all very influential in this period • Women were slowly beginning to wear trousers as an everyday item
The American Look • American films were again very influential • Stars such as grace Kelly and Marylyn Monroe were widely copied • Off-the-Peg clothing was much more available than ever before and of a higher quality
Late 1950’s • Rising teenage market with more freedoms than ever before • And with a higher disposable income • Influenced by music • Beginnings of short-lived trends and throw-away society • ‘Teddy-Boys’ and ‘Greasers’ first appeared.
1960 – 1970 • Early 1960’s women still fairly conservatively dressed • Focus of fashion beginning to change from Paris to London • Fashion starting to be led by people on the street rather than by a few elite Parisian designers
1960’s • Culottes very popular in early 1960s • Bikini became fashionable • Mini-skirt invented… • But it was not adopted by the general public until the late 1960’s • Carnaby Street in London was the coolest area to shop for fashion conscious teenagers
1960’s Design Influences • Technology once again had a huge impact on fashion • Space travel and man first landing on the moon (1969) • Futuristic films and fashions followed
1970-1980: Early Style Influences • Garment shapes became a lot more fluid and floaty • Started with the Hippy look that originated in the late 1960’s • Jeans were a now a wardrobe staple for both women and men • Tie-dye was popular • Very strong music influence
1970-1990: Early Style Influences • Tunics and Indian styles popular in early 1960s • Skirt lengths varied between Mini, Midi and Maxi • Platform shoes were worn by both men and women
Late 1970’s • Disco music and styles became popular • Increasing availability of man-made fibres • More colours and shiny fabrics available than ever before.
1980 – 1990 • Punk began as an underground movement in the late 1970’s and became an important part of 1980’s fashion • Malcolm McLaren and Vivienne Westwood brought the punk look into mainstream fashion
1980 – 1990 • The 80’s had an wide mix of fashions and styles influenced by many different factors: • Power Dressing • New Romantic Look • Rap Music • Dynasty and Dallas • MONEY!