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Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Islam. Pre-Islamic Life. Rural Life Bedouins – Nomadic tribes Fairly violent society Tribes & Clans Status is from the group Urban Life Mecca: Trade Center / Land of Haram Not as violent Status is from wealth No concern for poor/weak . Pre-Islamic Religion. Polytheism

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pre islamic life
Pre-Islamic Life
  • Rural Life
    • Bedouins – Nomadic tribes
      • Fairly violent society
        • Tribes & Clans
        • Status is from the group
  • Urban Life
    • Mecca: Trade Center / Land of Haram
      • Not as violent
        • Status is from wealth
        • No concern for poor/weak
pre islamic religion
Pre-Islamic Religion
  • Polytheism
    • Many gods & goddesses
    • Creator god present in pantheon
      • Not worshipped by many
  • Animism
    • Spirits in the world
      • Inhabit rocks, trees, valleys, free-flowing, etc.
  • Judaism & Christianity known
muhammad the final prophet
Muhammad – The Final Prophet
  • Muhammad – born 570 ce
    • Quraysh tribe / Hashim Clan
    • Orphaned young
      • Raised by uncle
  • Marries Khadijah
    • Excellent marriage
      • Fatima
  • Disturbed by Society
    • Upset by poverty
    • Moral system not adequate
    • Goes to meditate / pray
night of power
Night of Power
  • 610 – Angel Gabriel visits M. while he meditates
  • Tells M. to “recite”
  • Foundation of the Qur’an
    • suras
fundamental beliefs
Fundamental Beliefs
  • Monotheistic belief
    • Only God is worthy of worship
      • Polytheism gives other “beings” worship
  • Last Judgment
    • Deeds in life will be judged
      • Theocentric purpose for life
    • Bodily resurrection
      • No body/soul dichotomy
  • Five Pillars of Islam
the five pillars of islam
The Five Pillars of Islam
  • Recitation of the Muslim act of faith
    • There is no God but God, and M. is his prophet
  • Obligation of prayer
    • 5 times a day – facing Mecca
  • Charity
    • 1/40th income
  • Fasting during Ramadan
    • Daylight hours
  • Pilgrimage (Haj)
hegria
Hegria
  • Muhammad escapes Mecca
  • Goes to Medina to start an Islamic society
  • Islam – submission to God
  • Muslim – one who submits
battle of badr 623
Battle of Badr - 623
  • New Umma in Medina
  • Battles with Mecca show divine support
    • Peace treaties with
  • Conquered Mecca – Jan. 11, 624
practices of islam
Practices of Islam
  • No pork, alcohol – halal
  • Male circumcision
  • Polygamy acceptable/ Monogamy ideal
  • Usury forbidden
  • Observation of feast days
  • Simplicity and asceticism
    • Rapid growth and spread of religion
main sects of islam
Main Sects of Islam
  • Sunni and Shi’a traditions
  • Sufism = mystical dimension of Islam
    • Sheyks and disciples
    • Retirement in poverty
    • Piety and repentance

Sufi Dancing

sufi writers
Sufi Writers
  • Rumi
    • Persian poems (rhyming couplets)
    • Discourses on mystical experiences
    • Recitation and movement (dervishes)
modern islam
Modern Islam
  • Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire
  • World War I
  • Modern Islamic states
    • Variations in social expression