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User interface . Systems Analysis and Design Accountancy Department Petra Christian University Surabaya 2003. What ?. Interaction/dialogues between machine and users Communicating information from machine to the user Communicating information from the user to the machine. Why ?.
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User interface Systems Analysis and Design Accountancy Department Petra Christian University Surabaya 2003
What ? Interaction/dialogues between machine and users Communicating information from machine to the user Communicating information from the user to the machine
Why ? • To focus on the needs of the users rather than on the needs of the computers • To avoid frustration, confusion, boredom, misuse, abandonment etc. ( easy to learn, remember, use) • To reduce the trainings to use the systems
How ? (basic principles) • Understanding audience • Knowing the goal • Consistent • clear • systematic • Communicative • Intuitive • Flexible • aesthetics
UNDERSTANDING AUDIENCE • Novice vs expert • Novice : instruction, help, dialogue • Expert : efficient • Involvement from the beginning • Identifying likes and dislikes of the existing system • Involvement in the testing stage ( finding errors) • feedback
KNOWING THE GOAL • Easy to learn • Easy to use • Efficiency
CONSISTENT • term • layout • font size • Color • character type • icon, button, form etc. for similar concepts, headings, body of text, page etc
CLEAR • readable to be read on screen or printed ( font color, size, type); text – 12 “ • concise • simple term/heading • Grammatically correct sentences • avoid acronyms/abbreviations • no exaggerations, funny or cute words • Use action words for phrase instructions
SYSTEMATIC • alphabetical • chronological • category/sub-category • process-based approach • geographical
COMMUNICATIVE 1 • help/guide ( readable, clear, consistent, complete) • PAGE (not exceeding the wide of the monitor used, not too long approx 2,5 screen length) • TEXT/REPORT/PARAGRAPH (concise, short sentences, use abstracts or summaries at the top of the page if the text is long, not > one concept per paragraph, most important point first, background color – white • If more than 1 page , use scroll or button ( previous/next) • Use search or topic list/index
COMMUNICATIVE 2 • messages ( warning, confirmation, status, error, reasons etc) • Internal controls (prevent user to perform inappropriate action, not allowed to proceed without correcting the errors, Authentication and authorization etc. ) • Navigation ( know the position, how to go back and move forward)
INTUITIVE • Easy to learn ( minimal instruction, users can pick it up quickly and easily) • Unambiguous • Know what to do next • to distinguish between alternative actions
FLEXIBILITY ( customized to the needs of the users) • Hiding/displaying tools bars/menu etc. • Font size, color, type • Dates to pick up • Types of display screen, print outs • Layout ( portrait, landscape) • Number of pages displayed, printed Etc.
AESTHETICS • not crowded • composition – color, layout , size • Character types not > 3 in one page • Images/graphics/animation - small enough to be viewed/downloaded
Human Factors • Memory (7 ± 2)[ Miller (1956)] • Dynamic, e.g. Web: 2 or 3? (Yentema& Mueser, 1960; Yentema, 1963; Venturino, 1997) • Search engines can offload memory burden • Perception: visual • Motor skills: • Attention and vigilance • Problem solving • Learning and skill acquisition • Motivation • Users' conceptual models • Population Stereotypes • Human diversity, including disabled
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE • Windows and frames • Scroll bar • Task bar • Menu-driven interface • Instruction-driven interface • Question-answer dialogue
Menu driven • Hierarchical • Pull down/drop down & Cascading • Dialogue box • Tear-0ff • Pop-up • Tool bar, iconic menu ( push/click) • Consumer-style interface • Hypertext and hyperlink ( hybrid windows/web interface)
questions • Jika anda dihadapkan pada pilihan merancang user interface, mana yang anda dahulukan, estetika atau keterpakaian? Mengapa?
What is Usability? • "Usability (is) the ease with which a user can learn to operate, prepare inputs for, and interpret outputs of a system or component." [IEEE 90] • "The usability of an interface is a measure of the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specified users can achieve specified goals in a particular environment with that interface." [ISO 13407]
Attributes of Usability According to Nielsen , usability is associated with these five usability attributes: • Learnability • Efficiency • Memorability • Errors • Satisfaction