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Soils Up Close: The Soil Profile and Horizon Characteristics PowerPoint Presentation
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Soils Up Close: The Soil Profile and Horizon Characteristics

Soils Up Close: The Soil Profile and Horizon Characteristics

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Soils Up Close: The Soil Profile and Horizon Characteristics

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  1. Soils Up Close:The Soil Profile and Horizon Characteristics

  2. I. The Soil Profile A. Profiles vs. Pedons Soil Profile: a two-dimensional body, commonly studied in artificial cuts. Soil Pedon: a three-dimensional body, with the same thickness as a profile, but with a surface area that ranges between 1 and 100 square meters. From: Birkeland, 1999

  3. I. The Soil Profile B. Gaining the 3rd Dimension

  4. I. The Soil Profile B. Gaining the 3rd Dimension • Roadcut/Construction Excavation

  5. I. The Soil Profile B. Gaining the 3rd Dimension 2. Pit Excavation

  6. I. The Soil Profile B. Gaining the 3rd Dimension 3. Soils Augering

  7. The Soil Profile C. Major Components of Soil

  8. The Soil Profile C. Major Components of Soil Mineral Matter 45% Organic Matter 05% Water 25% Air 25%

  9. II. Soil Profile Horizons A. Master Horizons

  10. I. The Soil ProfileA. Master Horizons……OAEBCR Solum Solum: Consists of the surface and subsoil layers that have undergone the same soil forming conditions. Epipedon: “over the soil"; the uppermost layer of soil that serves as the diagnostic horizon.

  11. E R

  12. E

  13. E

  14. “Zone of Leaching” Or “Zone of Eluviation”

  15. Zone of illuviaton

  16. Diagnostic properties (B horizon) • Thickness • Color • Texture • Structure

  17. R

  18. II. The Soil Profile C. Subhorizons

  19. Subhorizons

  20. Subhorizons

  21. Subhorizons

  22. Subhorizons

  23. III. Soil Profile Characteristics

  24. III. Soil Profile Characteristics A. Texture

  25. III. Soil Profile Characteristics A. Texture • Major categories Boulder Stones Cobble Gravel Sand Silt Clay 600 mm 250 mm 76 mm 2 mm 0.05 mm 0.002 mm

  26. < 0.002 mm Texture 0.062 to 0.05 mm 2.0 to 0.05 mm

  27. < 0.002 mm Texture Common in B Horizons Common in A Horizons 0.05 to 0.002 mm 2.0 to 0.05 mm Common in A Horizons over Granites

  28. III. Soil Profile Characteristics A. Texture 2. Importance of Texture in Soils Work

  29. III. Soil Profile Characteristics A. Texture 2. Importance of Texture in Soils Work • Reflects character of Parent Material

  30. III. Soil Profile Characteristics A. Texture 2. Importance of Texture in Soils Work • Reflects character of Parent Material • Affects processes within the soil

  31. III. Soil Profile Characteristics A. Texture 2. Importance of Texture in Soils Work • Reflects character of Parent Material • Affects processes within the soil • Degree of horizon development (fine vs. coarse-grained soils) • Drainage properties • Engineering properties

  32. III. Soil Profile Characteristics A. Texture 2. Importance of Texture in Soils Work • Reflects character of Parent Material • Affects processes within the soil • Degree of horizon development • Drainage properties • Engineering properties • Degree of chemical reactivity • Water retention

  33. III. Soil Profile Characteristics A. Texture 2. Importance of Texture in Soils Work • Reflects character of Parent Material • Affects processes within the soil • Degree of horizon development • Drainage properties • Engineering properties • Degree of chemical reactivity • Water retention • Erositivity • Tilth

  34. III. Soil Profile Characteristics A. Texture 3. Determining Texture

  35. Qualitative Methods

  36. Qualitative Methods

  37. III. Soil Profile Characteristics A. Texture 3. Determining Texture

  38. III. Soil Profile Characteristics A. Texture 3. Determining Texture

  39. 20 ml pipette