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Transportation Self-Efficacy and Social Problem-Solving. Adele Crudden & Jamie O’Mally, NRTC Donna Smith, Easter Seals Project Action. Robin Chase, Founder/CEO of Buzzcar.

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Transportation Self-Efficacy and Social Problem-Solving

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transportation self efficacy and social problem solving

Transportation Self-Efficacy and Social Problem-Solving

Adele Crudden & Jamie O’Mally, NRTC

Donna Smith, Easter Seals Project Action

robin chase founder ceo of buzzcar
Robin Chase, Founder/CEO of Buzzcar

Transportation is the center of the world! It is the glue of our daily lives. When it goes well, we don’t see it. When it goes wrong, it negatively colors our day, makes us feel angry and impotent, curtails our possibilities.


Attendees will:

  • Learn complex factors impacting transportation planning.
  • Gain knowledge about social problem-solving and self-efficacy with regard to transportation.
  • Increase understanding of transportation barriers and strategies to overcome these barriers.
exercise 1
Exercise 1
  • Think about a routine day
  • Pick a trip you might need to make
  • List 2-4 ways you could make this trip if driving a personal car wasn’t available to you
  • Discuss in three minutes
transportation related tasks
Transportation Related Tasks
  • Setting transportation goals
  • Identifying transportation options
  • Assessing cost-effectiveness of options
  • Implementing options
  • Evaluating success
  • Making modifications
  • Devising back up plan
public transportation issues
Public Transportation Issues
  • Availability of public transportation options
  • Route information
  • Stop location
  • Complementary paratransit
    • Application process
    • Policies and practices
other transportation options
Other Transportation Options
  • Shuttle systems
  • Van pools
  • Employer provided
  • Transportation for special groups
private transportation
Private Transportation
  • Finding, hiring, firing a driver
  • Carpooling
  • Volunteer drivers
  • Insurance issues
  • Locating potential drivers
  • Screening process
  • Negotiating compensation
  • Scheduling
  • Insurance issues
  • Back up plans
  • Locating carpool
  • Compensation
  • Insurance
  • Safety
  • Scheduling
  • Courtesy
volunteer drivers
Volunteer Drivers
  • Locating
  • Screening
  • Insurance
  • Scheduling
  • Reciprocity
exercise 2
Exercise 2
  • In your small group discuss:
  • How do people who are blind learn these skills?
  • What is taught?
  • When is it taught?
  • Who teaches it?
  • Full group discussion in five minutes
what is self efficacy
What is Self-Efficacy?

Belief about your ability to perform a task or influence an event that affects your life

Albert Bandura (1997)

strong self efficacy
Strong Self-Efficacy
  • Approach tasks as challenges
  • Set challenging goals and have strong commitments to them
  • Persistent in efforts and bounce back after failure
  • Attribute failure to insufficient information or effort
  • Less vulnerable to depression
lower self efficacy
Lower Self-Efficacy
  • View challenges as threats
  • Dwell on personal deficiencies
  • Give up when faced with difficulty
  • Slow to recover
  • Susceptible to stress and depression
sources of self efficacy
Sources of Self-Efficacy
  • Mastery
  • Social modeling
  • Social persuasion
  • Control stress responses
self efficacy and transportation
Self-Efficacy and Transportation
  • Perseverance in times of difficulty
  • Belief you can control a situation
  • Belief in worth of task
  • Optimistic
what is social problem solving
What is Social Problem-Solving?
  • Process of finding solutions to everyday problems
  • Problem – a natural issue in the environment
  • Solution – potentially effective options
  • Includes
    • Learning
    • Coping
    • Self control
  • Not implementation

Thomas J. D’Zurilla & Arthur M. Nezu (2007)

social problem orientation
Social Problem Orientation

How do you:

  • Recognize the problem?
  • Identify cause of the problem?
  • View problem as threat or opportunity?
  • Determine who has control of the situation?
  • Calculate cost-benefit ratio

Orientation can be positive or negative.

positive problem orientation
Positive Problem Orientation
  • Problems are expected; caused by environmental or personal factors, not personal defect
  • View problems as challenges and failure as a learning experience
  • Believe solutions exist and that solutions can be found
  • Understanding that resolution takes time and effort
negative problem orientation
Negative Problem Orientation
  • Self blame
  • View problems as threats
  • Low expectation of success leads to avoidance
  • Failure due to personal incompetence
problem solving skills
Problem-Solving Skills
  • Define problem and gather information
  • Generate options
  • Choose the best option
  • Implement and evaluate the solution
research questions
Research Questions

Do adults who are blind or visually impaired and needing assistance identifying transportation to and from work have the

  • Problem-solving skills necessary to complete the tasks associated with the problem?
  • Confidence in their ability to find and utilize transportation options?
  • Alabama VR consumers who are blind/visually impaired
  • Initially with identified jobs
  • Identified by counselor as needing assistance with transportation
  • Agreed to referral for project
  • Expanded project to include “job ready” and marketed directly to consumers
  • VR counselors made referral to NRTC
  • NRTC obtained consent and administered instruments by phone
  • Part of a larger project to develop and implement a transportation intervention
  • Transportation Self-Efficacy
  • Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, short form*

*D’Zurilla, T., Nezu, A. M. & Maydeu-Olivares. SPSI-R. MHS, Inc. North Tonawanda, NY.

transportation self efficacy
Transportation Self-Efficacy
  • NRTC constructed instrument
  • 14 items with ratings from 0 to 10
  • Assess confidence in ability to perform transportation related tasks
  • Instrument construction included content review and pilot testing
sample items
Sample Items
  • Find transportation to work
  • Give directions to a driver from your place of work
  • Find out about average costs of different transportation options in your area
  • Earn enough money to pay for transportation expenses
  • Interview and screen a driver before hiring them
self efficacy scores
Self-Efficacy Scores
  • Higher scores = greater confidence
  • Total Mean = 101.5(out of 140).
  • Means on individual items ranged from 5.2 – 8.9 (out of 10).
  • Most scores on items were high (e.g. Median ≥ 8.0 for 9 of 14 items).
highest self efficacy
Highest Self-Efficacy
  • Explain to a driver where you need to go (8.9)
  • If needed, ask for assistance upon arriving at a destination (8.75)
  • Ride a bus or shuttle (if it were available) (8.6)
lowest self efficacy
Lowest Self-Efficacy
  • Arrange transportation to and from work with someone who works nearby at another business (5.20)
  • Use the internet to find information about transportation options near you (6.09)
  • Arrange transportation to and from work with co-workers (6.61)
  • Go through the process of finding and hiring a safe and reliable driver (6.63)
  • Note: Items also have higher variability
social problem solving inventory revised
Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised
  • Measures how people solve problems (positive or negative)
  • Identifies problem-solving style (rational, impulsive/careless, avoidant)
  • Psychometrically sound
social problem solving orientation
Social Problem-Solving Orientation
  • Mean score = 114.58
  • 86 – 114 Average
  • Higher scores indicate
    • Views problems as a “challenge” and not a threat
    • Believes problems are solvable (optimistic)
    • Believes in ability to be successful (self-efficacy)
    • Understands problem solving takes time, effort, and patience
    • Commits to solving problem, not avoiding
negative problem orientation1
Negative Problem Orientation
  • Mean score = 96.67
  • 86 – 114 Average
  • Higher scores indicate
    • Views a problem as a significant threat to well being
    • Doubts ability to solve problems (negative self-efficacy)
    • Becomes frustrated and upset when confronted with typical problems (low frustration tolerance)
rational problem solving
Rational Problem Solving
  • Mean score = 113.08
  • 86 – 114 Average
  • Higher scores indicate
    • Carefully and systematically gather information
    • Identify demands and obstacles
    • Set reasonable goals
    • Generate alternative solutions
    • Anticipate consequences
    • Compare alternatives
    • Choose and implement a solution while monitoring and evaluating the outcome
    • Likely to perform effectively in problem solving situations.
impulsivity carelessness style
Impulsivity/Carelessness Style
  • Mean score = 97.52
  • 86 – 114 Average
  • Higher scores indicate:
    • Consider only a few alternatives
    • Impulsively go with first idea
    • Scan alternatives and consequences quickly, carelessly, and unsystematically
    • Monitor and evaluate solution outcomes carelessly and inadequately
    • Likely to function inefficiently and ineffectively in problem solving situations.
  • Mean score = 95.83
  • 86 – 114 Average
  • Higher scores indicate:
    • More likely to avoid problems rather than confront them
    • Put off solving problems as long as possible
    • Wait for problems to resolve themselves rather than attempt to solve them
    • Attempt to shift the responsibility for solving problems to others
    • Likely to perform ineffectively in problem solving situations
social problem solving summary
Social Problem-Solving Summary
  • Top of average scale in positive problem orientation
  • Low end of average in negative problem orientation
  • High end of average in rational problem solving
  • Low end of average in impulsivity/carelessness style
  • Just below the middle in avoidance style
  • Results indicate that participants had good problem solving skills
  • Nonrandom sample
  • Social desirability bias (telephone administration)
  • Scores based on self report
  • Efficacy may not correspond to skill
  • Limited transportation options available
  • Relocation may not be an option; support systems in place
  • Cost of transportation
  • Few jobs available
  • Problem solving may lead to temporary solutions that are not viable long term
  • Items with lower self-efficacy include skills that can be mastered with instruction
future research
Future Research
  • What do we still need to know about transportation?
  • How can we make sure transportation skills are covered during the rehabilitation process?
thank you
Thank You

Follow up:

Adele Crudden:

Jamie O’Mally:

Donna Smith: