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Self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is belief in one’s capacity to succeed at tasks. General self-efficacy is belief in one’s general capacity to handle tasks. Specific self-efficacy refers to beliefs about one’s ability to perform specific tasks. Self.

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self efficacy


Self-efficacy is belief in one’s capacity to succeed at tasks. General self-efficacy is belief in one’s general capacity to handle tasks. Specific self-efficacy refers to beliefs about one’s ability to perform specific tasks.

  • Between 700 and 1500, the concept of the “self” referred to only the weak, sinful, crude, “selfish” nature of humans.
  • Self in the 20th century. Education and parenting in North America has been criticized for overemphasizing praise and affirmation of children.
self efficacy3
  • Self-efficacy developing from mastery experiences in which goals are achieved through perseverance and overcoming obstacles and from observing others succeed through sustained effort.
  • Knowing one’s limitation boundaries, realistic goals can be successfully accomplished which, in turn, establish new goals leading to further success and developing mental toughness.
  • Self-efficacy has been found to be a significant predictor of superior performance.
self efficacy on memory
Self-efficacy on Memory
  • Human memory is an active constructive process in which information is semantically elaborated, transformed, and reorganized into meaning memory.
  • Self-Beliefs of efficacy can enhance or impair performance through their effects on cognitive, affective, or motivational intervening processes. Research has shown the self-efficacy affects thinking processes, either as events of interest in their own right or as intervening influences of other aspects of psychosocial functioning.
  • People who believe strongly in their problem-solving capabilities remain highly efficient in their analytic thinking in complex decision-making situations. Those who are plagued by self-doubts are erratic in their analytic thinking.
self efficacy in visual images
Self-efficacy in visual images
  • Evidence suggests that visual images and motor images are encoded in the brain using different neural networks, and that these neural pathways are activated by imagery in the same way that they are activated when actually performing the imagined act
  • When performers become more skilled, kinesthetic imagery may help them acquire a detailed feel for the required movements.
  • If you can see yourself doing it before you do it you will have more success.
self efficacy in abc
Self-efficacy in ABC
  • The goal of adventure based counseling programs is to help individuals deal with their fears and push them outside of their physical and psychological comfort zones.
  • Special needs students with behavior and adjustment difficulties who participated in adventure based counseling activities in the school system improved their self-efficacy, decreased their anxiety, and showed an increase in positive attitudes toward school.
  • The process focuses on success and skills rather than focusing on failure of lack of ability.
self efficacy in boys and girls
Self-efficacy in boys and girls
  • While both male and female participants may be similarly skilled in a particular component, if the tasks are better suited to the male body type; the woman faces initial failure and feelings of inadequacy.
  • Instead of changing the emphasis of the task, women are expected to be perfect and therefore may be discouraged from seeking additional adventure situations.
  • To raise self efficacy and self confidence you have to change the activities that can include all sorts of students. If the boys are just succeeding the activity needs to be changed.
self efficacy in the outdoors
Self-efficacy in the outdoors
  • Outdoor programs offer a physically active way for staff and participants to relate to one another, so the emphasis is not solely on talk.
  • It is an effective way of reaching many people, especially adolescents who may be resistant to talking or who lack trust in adult authority figures.
  • Studies of mental health programs have shown widely reported increases in self-esteem of participants and a positive impact on self efficacy
self efficacy in cancer
Self-efficacy in cancer
  • Findings suggested that participation in adventure programs may enhance the ability of family members to cope with the cancer diagnosis by increasing their use of communication and social support.
  • Adventure programs gave the cancer victims an opportunity to practice making choices and taking control of their own experience. For most, the metaphor of making choices on the challenge course was transferable to their lives.
self efficacy on teenagers
Self-efficacy on teenagers
  • Instead of bearing down harder on teenagers as they struggle harder and instead of simply letting them go to wreak havoc upon themselves and others, such an adventure offers a third alternative: the opportunity to take control of their lives within an appropriate structure
  • Rather then making the emphasis of the program on rules and restrictions, the focus shifts to challenges and opportunities.
  • By given the challenge of caring for their basic needs, residents experience true autonomy for the first time and realize they have been given what they had been fighting for, yet it was not by fighting that they gained it and only by cooperation and appropriate behavior will they keep it. The teenagers begin to learn to trust adults and also are further reinforced in their sense of autonomy and individuality.
self efficacy on teenagers cont
Self-efficacy on teenagers cont.
  • The common philosophy of adventure education programming includes: the beliefs that adolescents are more capable then we generally acknowledge human potential can be unlocked through challenging experiences in supportive group environments.
  • Research has indicated that camping and adventure education programs are reasonably effective means for enhancing adolescent self efficacy.
self efficacy pros
Self-efficacy pros
  • Self-constructs seem to be positively associated with other desirable qualities, such as better quality of live, higher academic performance, character development and personal growth.
self efficacy cons
Self- efficacy cons
  • Simply boosting self-esteem without boosting personal skill, it has been argued, creates more serious problems arising from the self-deception
  • This area deserves further research. Among other tasks, attention needs to be paid to distinguishing shallow self-esteem boosting methods form well developed, effective approaches to personal and social development.
  • In all my research the over-all theme is that they believe self-efficacy is a good thing but they need more research to prove that self-efficacy is a valued characteristic.
  • Bandura, Albert. (1989). Regulation of Cognitive Processes Through Perceived Self-Efficacy. Developmental Psychology vol. 25, No. 5, 729-735.
  • Bray, Steven R. Jones, Marc V. Mace, Roger D. MacRae, Alexander W. Stockbridge, Claire (2002). The Impact of Motivational Imagery on the Emotional State and Self-Efficacy Levels of Novice Climbers. Journal of Sport Behavior. Vol.25 issue1, p57, 17p
  • Callow, Nichola. Hardy, Lew. (1999). Efficacy of External and Internal Visual Imagery Perspectives for the Enhancement of Performance on Tasks in Which Form Is Important. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol. 21, 95-112.
  • Cantrell, Peggy. Robbins, Michael. Ryckman, Richard. Billy Thornton (1982). Development and Validation of a Physical Self-Efficacy Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 42 No-5, p891-900
  • Davis-Berman, Jennifer. Berman, Dene. (2006). Outdoor Education and Troubled Youth. Outdoor Education and Troubled Youth. Pg. 1-5
  • Glass, Scott. Myers, Jane. (2001) Combing the old and the New to Help Adolescents: Individual Psychology and Adventure-Based Counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 23. No. 2, 104-114
  • Golby, Jim. Sheard, Michael. (2006). The Efficacy of an Outdoor Adventure Education Curriculum on Selected Aspects of Positive Psychological Development. Journal of Experiential Education vol. 29, No. 2 pp. 187-209.
references continued
References continued
  • Humberstone, Barbara. Lynch, Pip. (1990). Girls Concepts of Themselves and Their Experiences in Outdoor Education Programs. The Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership. 8 (3)
  • Howelll, Jack. (2007). Adventure Boosts Empowerment. Reclaiming children and youth. Pg. 45-48
  • Neill, James. (2000). Building a Healthy challenges for adolescent development. Adventure-based programs. 3 pgs
  • Sibthorp, Jim. (2003). An Empiracal Look at Walsh and Golins’ Adventure Education Process Model: Relationships between antecedent Factors, Perceptions of Characteristics of an Adventure Education Experience, and Changes in Self-Efficacy. Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 35. No. 1, 80-106
  • Sugerman, Deborah. (2005). I am More Than My Cancer: An Exploratory Examination of Adventure Programming and Cancer Survivors. Journal of Experiential Education. Vol. 28. No. 1. 72-83.
  • Vogel, Robert. Adventure Training: Its Effect on Self-Actualization and Self-Perception of Personal Change.