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The Emergence of Mass Society in the Western World PowerPoint Presentation
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The Emergence of Mass Society in the Western World

The Emergence of Mass Society in the Western World

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The Emergence of Mass Society in the Western World

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    1. The Emergence of Mass Society in the Western World

    2. Growth of Industrial Prosperity New Products Substitution of steel for iron Electricity, internal combustion engine New Patterns Increased industrial production Germany replaces Britain as industrial leader Europes two economic zones Toward a World Economy Economic developments, transportation revolution (marine transport and railroads) Products from all over the world Europe dominated world economy with surplus of manufactured goods, markets, capital, industries, and military might

    3. The Spread of Industrialization The Spread of Industrialization Russia Sergei Witte 35,000 miles of railroad track, growth of steel and coal industry, providing of worlds oil Japan Government financed industries, built railroads, bought foreign experts to train Japanese in industrial techniques Developed industries in tea, silk, armaments, and shipbuilding

    4. Women and Work New Job Opportunities Women did low-wage work at home in sweatshops to support families Second industrial revolution created new jobs for women Clerks, typists, secretaries, file clerks and sales clerks, teachers, nurses Offered freedom from domestic patterns

    5. Industrial Regions of Europe at end of 19th C

    6. Organizing the Working Class Marxist Theory Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), The Communist Manifesto History is that of class struggles Overthrow the bourgeoisie Eventually there would be a classless society Socialist Parties German Social Democratic Party (SPD), 1875 Reichstag worked to pass legislation to improve conditions of workers 4 million votes in 1912 elections in Germany Second International Revisionists Revolutionary socialism Trade Unions Workers in factories in Britain organized with 4 million union members in 1914

    7. The Emergence of Mass Society New Urban Environment Growth of cities: by 1914 80 percent of the population in Britain lived in cities (40 percent in 1800); 45 percent in France (25 percent in 1800); 60 percent in Germany (25 percent in 1800); and 30 percent in eastern Europe (10 percent in 1800) Migration from rural to urban Improving living conditions Boards of health set up Clean water into the city Expulsion of sewage Housing needs V.A. Huber British Housing Act, 1890, allowed town councils to construct cheap housing for workers

    8. The Social Structure of Mass Society The Elite 5 percent of the population that controlled 30 to 40 percent of wealth Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy The Middle Classes Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-class Professionals White-collar workers Middle class values in the Victorian period The Lower classes 80 percent of the European population Agriculture Skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled workers

    9. A Middle-Class Family

    10. The Experiences of Women Marriage and the Family Difficulty for single women to earn a living Most women married Birth control Female control of family size Middle-class family Men provided income and women focused on household and child care Fostered the idea of togetherness Victorian ideas Working-class families Daughters work until married 1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible to live on the husbands wages Material consumption

    11. Movement for Womens Rights Fight to own property Access to higher education by middle and upper-middle class women Access to jobs dominated by men: Teaching, nursing Demand for equal political rights Most vocal was the British movement Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928), Womens Social and Political Union, 1903 Suffragettes Support of peace movements The New Woman Bertha von Suttner

    12. Education in an Age of Mass Society In early 19th century reserved for elites or the wealthier middle class Between 1870 and 1914 most Western governments began to offer at least primary education to both boys and girls between 6 and 12 State teacher training schools Reasons: Needs of industrialization Need for an educated electorate To instill patriotism Compulsory elementary education created a demand for teachers, most were women Natural role of women

    13. Leisure in an Age of Mass Society Created by the industrial system Transportation systems meant: Working class could go to amusement parks, dance halls, beaches, and team sporting activities

    14. The National State Tradition and Change in Latin America Exportation of foodstuffs to Europe and the United States Importation of finished goods Overall situation: Largely rural Former slaves and Indians on the bottom Growth in the middle sectors of society Looked to the United States Working class expanded Growth of the working class led to industrialization Industrialization led to the growth of unions Elites still had the political influence

    15. Political Change in Latin America Large landowners took a more direct interest in politics Land owners might support dictators to ensure their interests Porfirio Diaz, ruled Mexico from 1876 1910 Francisco Madero came to power Demands for agrarian reform led by Emiliano Zapata The United States becomes the power in the west.

    16. Rise of the United States Shift to an industrial nation, 1860-1914 By 1900 out produced Britain in steel Urbanization By 1900, the US was the worlds richest nation, but: 9 percent of population owned 71 percent of the wealth Unsafe working conditions, work discipline and cycles of high unemployment led to unions The American Federation of Unions formed Progressive Era Reform Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921

    17. United States as a World Power Annexation of Samoan Islands, Hawaiian Islands Acquisition of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines from the Spanish-American War

    18. Growth of Canada Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick 1870 Manitoba, British Columbia 1871 William Laurier, 1896

    19. Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy Britain Two-party parliamentary system By 1918 all males, over 21 could vote; women over 30 By 1900 the emergence of the Labor Party Social Reforms that followed National Insurance Act, 1911 France Constitution of 1875; the Third Republic formed Bicameral legislature, universal male suffrage, president, premier the leader of government Coalition governments had to be formed to stay in power Italy Industrial north and poverty-stricken south Turmoil of labor and industry

    20. Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old Order Germany Lower house, Reichstag, elected by universal male suffrage Ministers responsible to the emperor Emperor commanded the armed forces and controlled foreign policy Emperor William II, 1888-1918 Demands for democracy Movement to block democracy Austria-Hungary Dual Monarchy Emperor Francis Joseph, 1848-1916 German minority Problems of ethnic groups

    21. Russia Assassination of Alexander II in 1881 Alexander III, 1881-1894, felt reform was a mistake Nicholas II, 1894-1917, wanted to rule with absolute power Growth in Marxist Social Democratic Party Revolt in 1905 Defeat of Russians by Japanese in 1904-1905 Results of antigovernment rebellions

    23. Europe in 1871

    24. International Rivalries and the Winds of War Bismarck made alliances to preserve the new German state Bismarck removed by William II in 1890 Resulting alliance system Triple Alliance Germany, Austria, Italy Triple Entente, 1907 Britain, France, Russia Crisis in the Balkans By 1878, Greece, Serbia, and Romania were independent Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina under Austrian protectorate Bulgaria under Russian protectorate Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1908 Serbian protest, Russian support of Serbia Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913

    25. Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments A New Physics Westerners and the mechanical conception of the universe Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Theory of relativity Energy of matter is equivalent to its mass times the square of the velocity of light Sigmund Freud and the Emergence of Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Human behavior determined by the unconscious, past experience, and internal forces Repression begins in childhood

    26. The Impact of Darwin: Social Darwinism and Racism Darwins ideas applied to human society Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927) Modern-day Germans the only pure successors of the Aryans Anti-Semitism In nineteenth century many Jews left the ghetto and became assimilated into the cultures around them Anti-Jewish parties 72 percent of worlds Jewish population lived in eastern Europe Movement to the United States and Palestine Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) Zionism

    27. Palestine

    28. Culture of Modernity Symbolists Poetry, influenced by the ideas of Freud Views Art Impressionism Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) Post-Impressionism - Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) Photography - George Eastman 1888 Cubism - Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Visual reality - Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)

    29. Discussion Questions What were the main ideas of Karl Marx, and what role did they play in politics and the union movement in the late 19th C and early 20th C? What is meant by the term mass society, and what were its main characteristics What intellectual and cultural developments in the late 19th C and early 20th C opened the way to a modern consciousness?