The Emergence of Mass Society. New Urban Environment
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The Emergence of Mass Society • New Urban Environment • Growth of cities: by 1914, 80 percent of the population in Britain lived in cities (40 percent in 1800); 45 percent in France (25 percent in 1800); 60 percent in Germany (25 percent in 1800); and 30 percent in eastern Europe (10 percent in 1800) • Migration from rural to urban • Improving living conditions • Boards of health set up • Clean water into the city • Expulsion of sewage • Housing needs • V.A. Huber • British Housing Act, 1890, allowed town councils to construct cheap housing for workers
The Social Structure of Mass Society • The Elite • 5 percent of the population that controlled 30 to 40 percent of wealth • Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy • The Middle Classes • Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-class • Professionals • White-collar workers • Middle class values in the Victorian period • The Lower classes • 80 percent of the European population • Agriculture • Skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled workers
The Experiences of Women • Marriage and the Family • Difficulty for single women to earn a living • Most women married • Birth control • Female control of family size • Middle-class family • Men provided income and women focused on household and child care • Fostered the idea of togetherness • Victorian ideas • Working-class families • Daughters work until married • 1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible to live on the husband’s wages • Material consumption
Movement for Women’s Rights • Fight to own property • Access to higher education by middle and upper-middle class women • Access to jobs dominated by men: teaching, nursing • Demand for equal political rights • Most vocal was the British movement • Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928), Women’s Social and Political Union, 1903 • Suffragettes • Support of peace movements • The New Woman • Bertha von Suttner
Education in an Age of Mass Society • In early 19th century reserved for elites or the wealthier middle class • Between 1870 and 1914 most Western governments began to offer at least primary education to both boys and girls between 6 and 12 • State teacher training schools • Reasons: • Needs of industrialization • Need for an educated electorate • To instill patriotism • Compulsory elementary education created a demand for teachers, most were women • “Natural role” of women
Leisure in an Age of Mass Society • Created by the industrial system • Transportation systems meant: • Working class could go to amusement parks, dance halls, beaches, and team sporting activities