emergence of mass society n.
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Emergence of Mass Society
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  1. Emergence of Mass Society Chapter 20 Section 2

  2. The New Urban Environment • Urban populations grew quickly because of migration to cities from rural areas • Driven by a lack of jobs and a lack of land • Living conditions improved in cities throughout the 1900s • Cities created boards of health • City medical officers and building inspectors inspected living areas for health hazards • Required running water and internal draining systems to bring in clean water and expel sewage • Creation of underground sewage system

  3. Social Structure of Mass Society

  4. Social Structure • The New Elite • Made up 5% of population • Aristocrats joined by most successful industrialists, bankers, and merchants • Became leaders in government and military • Marriage helped unite aristocrats with successful businesspeople to create the new elite class

  5. Social Structure • The Middle Classes • Upper middle class • Lawyers, doctors, business managers, engineers, architects, accountants, chemists • Lower middle class • Small shopkeepers, traders, prosperous peasants • Salespeople, bookkeepers, secretaries • People who believed in hard work and were regular churchgoers • Concerned with manners and etiquette

  6. Social Structure • The Working Classes • Made up almost 80% of population • Landholding peasants, farm laborers, skilled artisans, unskilled laborers • Living conditions improved • Strikes for shorter hours and Saturdays off • Rise in wages allows money for leisure activities

  7. Experiences of Women • New job opportunities arose • Clerks, typists, secretaries, sales clerks • Mostly working class women • Marriage and the family • Many women still stayed at home • Number of children born to one woman declined • Family was central to middle class life • Children began work at age 9 or 10 • Women worked until marriage

  8. Experiences of Women • Movement for Women’s Rights • Movement is also called feminism • Initially argued on basis of natural rights • Later, fought for rights to divorce, own property, access to universities, entry into male-dominated occupations • By 1914, women have right to vote in some countries

  9. Universal education • Late 1800s, most Western governments set up state-financed primary schools • Boys and girls ages 6-12 were required to attend • Primary motivation for this was political • Allow more people to vote created a need for better-educated voters • Created a demand for teachers • Mostly women • Lower salaries than men • 1st female colleges were teacher-training schools • Increases literacy rates

  10. New Forms of Leisure • Industrial system provided more time and money for leisure activities • Amusement parks were introduced • Professional team sports