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Human Nutrition . Chapter 10 Dr. WJ Mueller. Nutrient Requirements. Macronutrients Carbohydrates Protein Fats or oils Micronutrients Vitamins Minerals. Carbohydrates. Sugars Monosaccharides (know 2 examples) Disaccharides (know 2 examples) Polysaccharides Starches Glycogen

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human nutrition

Human Nutrition

Chapter 10

Dr. WJ Mueller

nutrient requirements
Nutrient Requirements
  • Macronutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • Protein
    • Fats or oils
  • Micronutrients
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Sugars
    • Monosaccharides (know 2 examples)
    • Disaccharides (know 2 examples)
    • Polysaccharides
      • Starches
      • Glycogen
      • Cellulose
proteins
Proteins
  • From the book know
    • How are proteins and amino acids related?
    • the difference between essential and non-essential amino acids
    • How many amino acids are necessary for humans
    • How many are essential
slide5

OH

OH

OH

C

C

CH2

H

2

H

Fats
  • The difference between fats and oils
    • Fats are solid at room temperature
    • Oils are liquid at room temperature
  • A fat is a glycerol molecule with three fatty-acid molecules attached to it

H2COH-HCOH-H2COH

    • You do not have to know the structure, but do know that the three long-chain fatty acids attach to the OH molecules to make an oil

Glycerol

fatty acids

H

H

C

C

H

H

Fatty Acids
  • They are chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen and oxygen atoms

COOH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

  • Many of you may know that carbon atoms require four bonds
  • Structurally a fatty acid looks like this:
fatty acids cont
Fatty Acids (cont.)
  • If the long-chain fatty acids do not have any double bonds between carbon atoms it is said to be saturated, or it has all the hydrogen molecules it can
  • Previous slide represents a saturated fatty acid
fatty acids cont8

Double bond

H

H

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

Fatty Acids (cont.)

If the long-chain fatty acid has one double bond along the chain, it is said to be monounsaturated, or lacks 2 hydrogens (remember the four bond rule for carbon atoms)

COOH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH3

fatty acids cont9
Fatty Acids (cont.)
  • If a fatty acid has two double bonds, then it is said to be either polyunsaturated or diunsaturated or lacking four hydrogens

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

fatty acids cont10
Fatty Acids (cont.)

If the long-chain fatty acid has three double bonds along the chain, it is said to be polyunsaturated, or lacks 6 hydrogens

COOH-CH2-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH3

fatty acids cont11
Fatty Acids (cont.)
  • Oils that have no double bonds tend to be solid at room temperature
  • Oils with double bonds tend to be liquid at room temperature
fatty acids cont12
Fatty Acids (cont.)
  • Now when you hear the phrase on a margin commercial that it is made of polyunsaturated fats, you will know what they are talking about.
  • You may have heard that monounsaturated (one double bond) fatty acids are good for you
    • Oils that are high in monounsaturated fatty acids are include:
      • Olive Oil
      • Canola Oil
fatty acids cont13
Fatty Acids (cont.)
  • Another term that is making an appearance lately is “trans-fatty acids”
  • In organic chemistry one learns that there are two configurations around a double bond. They are cis- and trans-
  • In nature, there are no trans-fatty acids, only cis-fatty acids
fats cont
Fats (cont.)
  • To make the perfect butter substitute, people figured out how to hydrogenate unsaturated fatty acids (make it more saturated)
    • This is done by putting the oil under pressure with hydrogen and a nickel catalyst
    • What does hydrogenation do?
      • It breaks double bonds and adds the missing hydrogen atoms to the molecule
fats cont15
Fats (cont.)
  • When you hear the term “partially hydrogenated vegetable oil” you will now know what it means
fatty acids cont16
Fatty Acids (cont.)
  • Cis-fatty acids are when the hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond
fatty acids cont17
Fatty Acids (cont.)
  • Cis-fatty acids are when the hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond (see below)

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

fatty acids cont18
Fatty Acids (cont.)
  • Trans-fatty acids are when the two hydrogen atoms are opposite to each other (see below)
  • This is not the configuration you find in nature

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

trans fatty acids cont
Trans-fatty acids (cont.)
  • The only way that trans-fatty acids are made is by hydrogenation
    • Some of the double bonds are broken and reformed in the process
    • When they are reformed, they have a 50-50 chance of being in cis- or trans- formation
  • Many are saying that trans-fatty acids are bad for you
fat facts
Fat Facts
  • The cholesterol molecule is closely related to fats
  • Plants make no cholesterol
  • Only animals make cholesterol
  • Even if you never eat any cholesterol, you may be in danger of having high cholesterol (why?)
slide21
Fats
  • The current thinking (always subject to change) is that saturated fats are bad for you
    • Increases LDL cholesterol
  • Monounsaturated fats tend to be good for you
    • Decrease LDL and increase HDL (find out what LDL and HDL refers to)
  • Polyunsaturated fats neither raise or lower cholesterol
fats cont22
Fats (cont.)
  • It is also said that animal fats are bad for you
    • They are made up of saturated fatty acids
  • Tropical oils are bad for you (coconut and palm oil)
    • Also made of saturate fatty acids
cholesterol story 1
Cholesterol Story #1
  • You are probably familiar with adrenalin, a chemical produced by the body that powers the “flight or fight” mechanism
  • If someone comes up behind you in a dark alley, your adrenalin may shoot up
    • Your response might be to run a 100 meters in four seconds flat
    • Or perhaps pop the oncoming person in the nose
cholesterol story 1 cont
Cholesterol Story #1 (cont.)
  • I remember one time a cow chased my cousin and me out of the pasture
  • I do not remember how I cleared the fence, but I had no problem doing it
  • ADRENALIN!
cholesterol story 2
Cholesterol Story #2
  • When adrenalin is released and then not used, something has to happen to it. It breaks down into other things
  • One of those other things is cholesterol (LDL)
cholesterol story 3
Cholesterol Story #3
  • In the early 1980’s a big report came out stating that a big study was done and it showed that fluorescent lights caused heart disease
  • Everyone jumped! Get rid of those fluorescent lights, it is killing our workers!
cholesterol story 3 cont
Cholesterol Story #3 (cont.)
  • That is like the scientist that did an experiment on jumping spiders
    • First he measured how high the spider could jump when commanded
    • Then he pulled off one leg and measured the height he could jump with seven legs on the scientists command
    • He continued to pull off legs and measured how high the spider could jump when he commanded it to
cholesterol story 3 cont28
Cholesterol Story #3 (cont.)
    • Finally the spider had no legs and the spider did not jump when commanded
  • The conclusion:
    • Spiders cannot hear without legs!
cholesterol story 3 cont29
Cholesterol Story #3 (cont.)
  • The scientists conclusion on the spider seems ludicrous, but is was no more so than everyone changing out the fluorescent lights
  • Did people working under fluorescent lights have more of a problem with heart disease—Yes
  • Was it caused by the lights—No
cholesterol story 3 cont30
Cholesterol Story #3 (cont.)
  • What was the cause?
    • People working in offices get stressed
    • When people get stressed, they produce adrenalin
    • In an office building are they using that adrenalin to run or punch someone out (maybe the latter!)—No
    • So it has to break down to cholesterol
cholesterol story 3 cont31
Cholesterol Story #3 (cont.)
  • What if you are in a high-stress job?
  • GET EXERCISE, even if it a brisk walk up and down the hall
  • Use up some of the built up adrenalin
cholesterol story 4
Cholesterol Story #4
  • A lady at Utah State University when I was there (about 100 years ago) set up a study on cholesterol.
  • She paid students to:
    • Take a cholesterol test every day
    • Keep track of everything they ate
    • Keep track of when they slept
    • What they did and when
    • What their moods were
    • Everything about their lives
slide33

Cholesterol Story #4 (cont.)

  • The experiment was to find out what raised cholesterol levels
  • When she analyzed the correlation data, she was very disappointed and to my knowledge did not publish her results
slide34

Cholesterol Story #4 (cont.)

  • What did NOT raise cholesterol in students?
    • Various foods (they did not make a difference)
    • Types of fats eaten (they did not make a difference)
slide35

Cholesterol Story #4 (cont.)

  • What DID raise cholesterol in students?
    • Breaking up with a girl or boy friend
    • Having a test the next day
    • Loosing a loved one
    • Winning a poker game
    • Beating someone in a game of chess
    • Watching a football game on TV
slide36

Cholesterol Story #4 (cont.)

  • I think her results were very informative
  • Stresses (good or bad) increase cholesterol
    • Now you know the mechanism
  • What should you do about it?
    • Get some exercise
fats cont37
Fats (cont.)
  • So what is true?
  • Science has flip flopped several times on what is good and bad in the past 20 year that I have studied fats on what is and is not good for you
my take home lesson
My Take-home Lesson
  • We probably eat too much fat as a society, so instead of worrying about what fat you should and should not eat, reduce your fat intake
  • Do not stress out over it
  • Get more exercise
my take home lesson cont
My Take-home Lesson (cont.)
  • There are those individuals who have genetic tendencies toward high cholesterol, and those individuals need to be more careful
slide40
Fats
  • May I emphasize that this is not the end of the story.
  • It will be interesting to follow what is good and bad today may be reversed tomorrow