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Animal Nutrition Human Digestion PowerPoint Presentation
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Animal Nutrition Human Digestion

Animal Nutrition Human Digestion

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Animal Nutrition Human Digestion

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  1. Animal Nutrition Human Digestion

  2. food O2 ATP What do animals need to live? • Animals make energy using: • food • oxygen • Animals build bodiesusing: • food for raw materials • amino acids, sugars, fats, nucleotides • ATP energy for synthesis

  3. How do animals get their food? suspension feeding substrate feeding fluid feeding bulk feeding

  4. Different diets; different lives • All animals eat other organisms • Herbivores • eat mainly plants • gorillas, cows, rabbits, snails • Carnivores • eat other animals • sharks, hawks, spiders, snakes • Omnivores • eat animals & plants • cockroaches, bears, raccoons, humans • humans evolved as hunters, scavengers & gatherers

  5. Getting & Using Food • Ingest • taking in food • Digest • mechanical digestion • breaking up food into smaller pieces • chemical digestion • breaking down food into molecules small enough to be absorbed into cells • enzymes • Absorb • absorb across cell membrane • diffusion • active transport • Eliminate • undigested material passes out of digestive system intracellulardigestion extracellulardigestion

  6. Digestive systems Everybody’s got one!

  7. Human digestive system

  8. Swallowing (& not choking) • Epiglottis • flap of cartilage • closes trachea (windpipe) when swallowing • food travels down esophagus • Peristalsis • involuntary muscle contractions to move food along

  9. Ingestion • Mouth • mechanical digestion • teeth • breaking up food • chemical digestion • saliva • amylase • enzyme digests starch • mucin • slippery protein (mucus) • protects soft lining of digestive system • lubricates food for easier swallowing • buffers • neutralizes acid to prevent tooth decay • anti-bacterial chemicals • kill bacteria that enter mouth with food

  10. mouth break up food digest starch kill germs moisten food

  11. Stomach • Functions • food storage • can stretch to fit ~2L food • disinfect food • HCl = pH 2 • kills bacteria • chemical digestion • pepsin • enzyme breaks down proteins But the stomach is made out of protein! What stops the stomach from digesting itself? mucus secreted by stomach cells protects stomach lining

  12. stomach kills germs break up food digest proteins store food mouth break up food digest starch kill germs moisten food sphincter sphincter

  13. Coevolution of parasite & host Ulcers Free of H. pylori Colonized by H. pylori • Used to think ulcers were caused by stress • tried to control with antacids • Now know ulcers caused by bacterial infection of stomach • H. pylori • now cure with antibiotics inflammation of stomach inflammation of esophagus H. pylori cell damaging proteins (VacA) inflammatory proteins (CagA) cytokines helper T cells neutrophil cells white blood cells

  14. Revolutionizing healthcare 2005 Nobel prize in medicine J. Robin Warren Barry Marshall

  15. Small intestine • Function • chemical digestion • major organ of digestion & absorption • absorption through lining • over 6 meters! • small intestine has huge surface area = 300m2 (~size of tenniscourt) • Structure • 3 sections • duodenum = most digestion • jejunum = absorption of nutrients & water • ileum = absorption of nutrients & water

  16. Duodenum • 1st section of small intestines • acid food from stomach • mixes with digestive juices from: • pancreas • liver • gall bladder

  17. Pancreas • Digestive enzymes • digest proteins • trypsin, chymotrypsin • digest starch • amylase • Buffers • neutralizes acid from stomach

  18. pancreas produces enzymes to digest proteins & starch mouth break up food digest starch kill germs moisten food stomach kills germs break up food digest proteins store food

  19. Liver • Function • produces bile • bile stored in gallbladder until needed • breaks up fats • act like detergents to breakup fats bile contains colors from old red blood cells collected in liver = iron in RBC rusts & makes feces brown

  20. liver produces bile - stored in gall bladder break up fats mouth break up food digest starch kill germs moisten food stomach kills germs break up food digest proteins store food pancreas produces enzymes to digest proteins & starch

  21. Absorption by Small Intestines • Absorption through villi & microvilli • finger-like projections • increase surface area for absorption

  22. small intestines breakdown food - proteins - starch - fats absorb nutrients mouth break up food digest starch kill germs moisten food stomach kills germs break up food digest proteins store food liver produces bile - stored in gall bladder break up fats pancreas produces enzymes to digest proteins & starch

  23. Large intestines (colon) • Function • re-absorb water • use ~9 liters of water every day in digestive juices • > 90% of water reabsorbed • not enough water absorbed • diarrhea • too much water absorbed • constipation

  24. You’ve got company! • Living in the large intestine is a community of helpful bacteria • Escherichiacoli (E. coli) • produce vitamins • vitamin K; B vitamins • generate gases • by-product of bacterial metabolism • methane, hydrogen sulfide

  25. large intestines absorb water mouth break up food digest starch kill germs moisten food stomach kills germs break up food digest proteins store food liver produces bile - stored in gall bladder break up fats small intestines breakdown food - proteins - starch - fats absorb nutrients pancreas produces enzymes to digest proteins & carbs

  26. Appendix Vestigial organ

  27. Rectum • Last section of colon (large intestines) • eliminate feces • undigested materials • extracellular waste • mainly cellulose from plants • roughage or fiber • masses of bacteria

  28. Different diets; different bodies • Adaptations of herbivore vs. carnivore • teeth • length of digestive system • number & size of stomachs

  29. Teeth • Carnivore • sharp ripping teeth • “canines” • Herbivore • wide grinding teeth • molars • Omnivore • both kinds of teeth

  30. Length of digestive system • Herbivores & omnivores • long digestive systems • harder to digest cellulose (cell walls) • bacteria in intestines help • Carnivores • short digestive systems • protein easier to digest than cellulose

  31. Eating a balanced diet • What happens if an animal’s diet is missing an essential nutrient? • deficiency diseases • scurvy — vitamin C (collagen production) • rickets — vitamin D (calcium absorption) • blindness — vitamin A (retinol production) • anemia — vitamin B12 (energy production) • kwashiorkor — protein

  32. Vegetarian diets • Need to make sure you get enough protein • 20 amino acids to make protein • 12 amino acids humans can produce • 8 we have to eat = “essential amino acids” • Grains (like corn) have 6 (missing 2) • Beans (like soybean & red beans) have 6 (missing different 2) • mix beans & grainsfor complete group of amino acids • rice & beans • taco/tortilla & beans • tofu & rice • peanut butter & bread

  33. Feedback: Maintaining Homeostasis • Balancing glucose levels in blood cellstake upglucose from blood insulin pancreas depress appetite liver takes upglucose for storage liver releasesglucose to blood stimulatehunger pancreas glucagon

  34. Any Questions??