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Chapter 32. Fundamentals of Circuits

Chapter 32. Fundamentals of Circuits

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Chapter 32. Fundamentals of Circuits

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  1. Chapter 32. Fundamentals of Circuits Surprising as it may seem, the power of a computer is achieved simply by the controlled flow of charges through tiny wires and circuit elements. Chapter Goal: To understand the fundamental physical principles that govern electric circuits.

  2. Chapter 32. Fundamentals of Circuits Topics: • Circuit Elements and Diagrams • Kirchhoff’s Laws and the Basic Circuit • Energy and Power • Series Resistors • Real Batteries • Parallel Resistors • Resistor Circuits • Getting Grounded • RC Circuits

  3. Chapter 32. Reading Quizzes

  4. How many laws are named after Kirchhoff? • 0 • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4

  5. How many laws are named after Kirchhoff? • 0 • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4

  6. What property of a real battery makes its potential difference slightly different than that of an ideal battery? • Short circuit • Chemical potential • Internal resistance • Effective capacitance • Inductive constant

  7. What property of a real battery makes its potential difference slightly different than that of an ideal battery? • Short circuit • Chemical potential • Internal resistance • Effective capacitance • Inductive constant

  8. In an RC circuit, what is the name of the quantity represented by the symbol ? • Period • Torque • Terminal voltage • Time constant • Coefficient of thermal expansion

  9. In an RC circuit, what is the name of the quantity represented by the symbol ? • Period • Torque • Terminal voltage • Time constant • Coefficient of thermal expansion

  10. Which of the following are ohmic materials: • batteries. • wires. • resistors. • Materials a and b. • Materials b and c.

  11. Which of the following are ohmic materials: • batteries. • wires. • resistors. • Materials a and b. • Materials b and c.

  12. The equivalent resistance for a group of parallel resistors is • less than any resistor in the group. • equal to the smallest resistance in the group. • equal to the average resistance of the group. • equal to the largest resistance in the group. • larger than any resistor in the group.

  13. The equivalent resistance for a group of parallel resistors is • less than any resistor in the group. • equal to the smallest resistance in the group. • equal to the average resistance of the group. • equal to the largest resistance in the group. • larger than any resistor in the group.

  14. Chapter 32. Basic Content and Examples

  15. Tactics: Using Kirchhoff’s loop law

  16. Tactics: Using Kirchhoff’s loop law

  17. EXAMPLE 32.1 A single-resistor circuit QUESTION:

  18. EXAMPLE 32.1 A single-resistor circuit

  19. EXAMPLE 32.1 A single-resistor circuit

  20. EXAMPLE 32.1 A single-resistor circuit

  21. EXAMPLE 32.1 A single-resistor circuit

  22. EXAMPLE 32.1 A single-resistor circuit

  23. Energy and Power The power supplied by a battery is The units of power are J/s, or W. The power dissipated by a resistor is Or, in terms of the potential drop across the resistor

  24. EXAMPLE 32.4 The power of light QUESTION:

  25. EXAMPLE 32.4 The power of light

  26. EXAMPLE 32.4 The power of light

  27. EXAMPLE 32.4 The power of light

  28. Series Resistors • Resistors that are aligned end to end, with no junctions    between them, are called series resistors or, sometimes,    resistors “in series.” • The current I is the same through all resistors placed in    series. • If we have N resistors in series, their equivalent    resistance is The behavior of the circuit will be unchanged if the N series resistors are replaced by the single resistor Req.

  29. EXAMPLE 32.7 Lighting up a flashlight QUESTION:

  30. EXAMPLE 32.7 Lighting up a flashlight

  31. EXAMPLE 32.7 Lighting up a flashlight

  32. EXAMPLE 32.7 Lighting up a flashlight

  33. EXAMPLE 32.7 Lighting up a flashlight

  34. Parallel Resistors • Resistors connected at both ends are called parallel    resistors or, sometimes, resistors “in parallel.” • The left ends of all the resistors connected in parallel are    held at the same potential V1, and the right ends are all    held at the same potential V2. • The potential differences ΔVare the same across all    resistors placed in parallel. • If we have N resistors in parallel, their equivalent    resistance is The behavior of the circuit will be unchanged if the N parallel resistors are replaced by the single resistor Req.

  35. EXAMPLE 32.10 A combination of resistors QUESTION:

  36. EXAMPLE 32.10 A combination of resistors

  37. EXAMPLE 32.10 A combination of resistors

  38. EXAMPLE 32.10 A combination of resistors

  39. Problem-Solving Strategy: Resistor circuits

  40. Problem-Solving Strategy: Resistor circuits

  41. Problem-Solving Strategy: Resistor circuits

  42. Problem-Solving Strategy: Resistor circuits

  43. RC Circuits • Consider a charged capacitor, an open switch, and a    resistor all hooked in series. This is an RC Circuit. • The capacitor has charge Q0 and potential difference ΔVC  = Q0/C. • There is no current, so the potential difference across the    resistor is zero. • At t = 0 the switch closes and the capacitor begins to    discharge through the resistor. • The capacitor charge as a function of time is    where the time constant τis

  44. EXAMPLE 32.14 Exponential decay in an RC circuit QUESTION: