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  1. ARTIODACTYLA The Zenith of Mammalian Evolution? Mammalogy – EEOB 625 5 March 2004

  2. ARTIODACTYLA:Origin & Evolution • A successful, modern taxon? • Parallel but distinct from Perissodactyla Separate origin from Condylartha • Diversification from Miocene with minimal decline since (during the rest of the Cenozoic)? • One of the most highly derived orders. Is this a valid statement? • 6th in diversity (after (?): __ , __ , __, __, & __)

  3. Who is this?

  4. Diacodexis of the Eocene Fig. 19.9

  5. Characteristics & Adaptive Radiationof Artiodactyla • Paraxonic, weight born equally on digits 3 and 4 • Advanced forms with hypsodont teeth and rumen • The origin & advantages of ruminant digestion • Evidence of extensive adaptive Radiation? -      Species richness? 220 species, 6th largest after: ____,____,____,_____,_____, 7th? -         Range of body sizes (3 kg to 4.5 tons) -         Other evidence?

  6. Tylapoda Ruminantia Suiformes

  7. Three Suborders of Artiodactyla • Suborder Suiformes – Suidae, Tayassuidae, Hippopotamidae • Suborder Tylopoda: Camilidae • Suborder Ruminantia: Giraffidae, Cervidae, Antilocapridae, Bovidae

  8. Three Suborders of Artiodactyla • Suborder Suiformes – Suidae, Tayassuidae, Hippopotamidae • Suborder Tylopoda: Camilidae Suborder Ruminantia(4 of 6 families) • Giraffidae – 2 species: decline or radiation? • Cervidae – 42 species, Worldwide except? • Antilocapridae – Pronghorn, the All-american • Bovidae – 137 species, Worldwide except?