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tubes transistors and amplifiers

Tubes, Transistors and Amplifiers

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

interest

Interest

  • In 1947,Bardeen & Brattain at Bell Laboratories created the first amplifier!Shockley (boss), came near to canceling the project. The three shared a Nobel Prize. Bardeen and Brattain continued in research (and Bardeen later won another Nobel). Shockley quit to start a semiconductor company in Palo Alto. It folded, but its staff went on to invent the integrated circuit (the "chip") & to found the Intel Corporation.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

tetrode tube

(+) Plate

(-) Shield

Control Grid

(-) Cathode

Inert Gas

Heater

Control Grid: Controls amplification rate & electron flow with bias voltage.

Shield: Screen grid- increases electron speed cathode to + plate.

Heater: Heats gas to gas amplification state.

Inert Gas: Mercury or Argon gas.

Tetrode Tube

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

cathode ray tube crt

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)

3 Electron Beams (Red, Green, Blue)

Phosphor

Coated

Screen

Conductive

Coating

Grids

(-) Cathode

(+) Anode

The cathode is a heated filament (like light bulb filament) in a vacuum inside a glass tube. The ray is a stream of electrons that naturally pour off a heated cathode into the vacuum.

The + anode attracts the electrons pouring off the cathode. In a TV's CRT, the stream of electrons is focused by a focusing anode into a tight beam and then accelerated by an accelerating anode. This tight, high-speed beam of electrons flies through the vacuum in the tube and hits the flat screen at the other end of the tube. This screen is coated with phosphor, which glows when struck by the beam.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

bipolar transistors

Bipolar Transistors

  • History
    • Created in 1948 in the AT&T Bell Laboratories.
    • Scientists were performing doping experiments on semiconductor material (diodes) and developed a semiconductor device having three (3) PN junctions.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

bipolar transistor construction

Bipolar Transistor Construction

  • NPN / PNP Block Diagrams

Emitter

Collector

N P N

Base

Emitter

Collector

P N P

Base

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

bipolar transistor theory

Bipolar Transistor Theory

  • For any transistor to conduct, two things must occur.
    • The emitter - base PN junction must be forward biased.
    • The base - collector PN junction must be reverse biased.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

bipolar transistor biasing npn

Bipolar Transistor Biasing (NPN)

FB

RB

Collector

-

Emitter

+

N P N

Base

+

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

bipolar transistor biasing pnp

Bipolar Transistor Biasing (PNP)

FB

RB

Emitter

Collector

-

P N P

+

Base

-

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

bipolar transistor operation pnp

Bipolar Transistor Operation (PNP)

  • 90% of the current carriers pass through the reverse biased base - collector PN junction and enter the collector of the transistor.
  • 10% of the current carriers exit transistor through the base.
  • The opposite is true for a NPN transistor.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

amplifier operation

The transistor below is biased such that there is a degree of forward bias on the base - emitter PN junction.

  • Any input received will change the magnitude of forward bias & the amount of current flow through the transistor.

Amplifier Operation

+VCC

RC

+

RB

+

Q1

0

0

Input Signal

Output Signal

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

amplifier electric switch operation

Amplifier Electric Switch Operation

  • When the input signal is large enough, the transistor can be driven into saturation & cutoff which will make the transistor act as an electronic switch.
  • Saturation - The region of transistor operation where a further increase in the input signal causes no further increase in the output signal.
  • Cutoff - Region of transistor operation where the input signal is reduced to a point where minimum transistor biasing cannot be maintained => the transistor is no longer biased to conduct. (no current flows)

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

amplifier electric switch operation13

Amplifier Electric Switch Operation

  • Transistor Q-point
    • Quiescent point : region of transistor operation where the biasing on the transistor causes operation / output with no input signal applied.
      • The biasing on the transistor determines the amount of time an output signal is developed.
  • Transistor Characteristic Curve
    • This curve displays all values of IC and VCE for a given circuit.It is curve is based on the level of DC biasing that is provided to the transistor prior to the application of an input signal.
      • The values of the circuit resistors, and VCC will determine the location of the Q-point.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

transistor characteristic curve

Transistor Characteristic Curve

IB

IC

90 uA

80 uA

70 uA

Q-Point

Saturation

60 uA

50 uA

40 uA

30 uA

20 uA

10 uA

0 uA

VCE

Cutoff

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

transistor maintenance

When troubleshooting transistors, do the following:

    • Remove the transistor from the circuit, if possible.
    • Use a transistor tester, if available, or use a digital multimeter set for resistance on the diode scale.
    • Test each PN junction separately. ( A “front to back” ratio of at least 10:1 indicates a good transistor).

Transistor Maintenance

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

transistor maintenance chart

Transistor Maintenance

Transistor Maintenance Chart

  • This chart shows the readings for a good transistor.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

questions
Questions

Q1. What is the 7 step troubleshooting method?

A1. Symptom recognition, symptom elaboration, list possible faulty functions, identify faulty function, identify faulty component, failure analysis, repair, retest.

Q2. What was the most difficult problem you ever troubleshot?

A2. Various

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

bipolar transistor amplifiers

Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

  • Amplifier Classification
    • Amplifiers can be classified in three ways:
      • Type (Construction / Connection)
        • Common Emitter
        • Common Base
        • Common Collector
      • Bias (Amount of time during each half-cycle output is developed).
        • Class A, Class B, Class AB, Class C
      • Operation
        • Amplifier
        • Electronic Switch

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

common emitter schematic

Output Signal Flow Path

Input Signal Flow Path

Common Emitter Schematic

+VCC

RC

+

RB

+

Q1

0

0

Input Signal

Output Signal

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

kirchoff voltage law

Kirchoff Voltage Law

  • DC Kirchoff Voltage Law Equations and Paths

+VCC

Base - Emitter Circuit

RC

IBRB + VBE - VCC = 0

RB

Collector - Emitter Circuit

Q1

ICRC + VCE - VCC = 0

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

common emitter operation

Common Emitter Operation

  • Positive Going Signal
  • Negative Going Signal

+

RC

0

Base becomes more (+) WRT Emitter 

Input Signal

RB

FB  

IC 

VRC 

VC

Q1

VOUT ( Less + )

Base becomes less (+) WRT Emitter 

+

FB 

IC

Output Signal

VRC 

VC

VOUT ( More + )

0

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

common base schematic

Common Base Schematic

Q1

Input Signal Flow Path

RC

RE

RB

+

+

CC

0

+VCC

0

Output Signal Flow Path

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

kirchoff voltage law23

Kirchoff Voltage Law

  • DC Kirchoff Voltage Law Equations and Paths

Q1

Base - Emitter Circuit

RC

IBRB + VBE + IERE - VCC = 0

RE

RB

CC

+VCC

Collector - Emitter Circuit

ICRC + VCE + IERE - VCC = 0

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

common base operation

Common Base Operation

Q1

  • Positive Going Signal
    • Negative Going Signal

Base becomes more (+) WRT Emitter 

RC

RE

RB

FB 

IC

VRC 

VC

CC

+VCC

VOUT ( More + )

+

Base becomes less (+) WRT Emitter 

FB 

IC

0

VRC 

VC

0

VOUT ( Less + )

Input Signal

Output Signal

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

common collector schematic

Common Collector Schematic

Output Signal Flow Path

+VCC

RB

+

Q1

0

Input Signal

+

RE

0

Input Signal Flow Path

Output Signal

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

kirchoff voltage law26

Kirchoff Voltage Law

  • DC Kirchoff Voltage Law Equations and Paths

+VCC

Base - Emitter Circuit

IBRB + VBE + IERE - VCC = 0

RB

Q1

Collector - Emitter Circuit

ICRC + VCE + IERE - VCC = 0

RE

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

common collector operation

Common Collector Operation

+VCC

  • Positive Going Signal
    • Negative Going Signal

RB

Base becomes more (+) WRT Emitter 

FB 

IE

Q1

VRE 

VE

VOUT ( More + )

RE

Base becomes less (+) WRT Emitter 

+

+

FB 

IE

0

0

VRE 

VE

Input Signal

Output Signal

VOUT ( Less + )

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

azaza vopini house of bec
AZAZA VOPINI & House of BEC

Common Common Common

B E C

Av = Voltage Gain

Zo = Output Impedance

Ap = Power gain

Zin = Input Impedance

Ai = Current Gain

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

transistor bias stabilization

Transistor Bias Stabilization

  • Used to compensate for temperature effects which affects semiconductor operation. As temperature increases, free electrons gain energy and leave their lattice structures which causes current to increase.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

types of bias stabilization

Types of Bias Stabilization

  • Self Bias: A portion of the output is fed back to the input 180o out of phase. This negative feedback will reduce overall amplifier gain.
  • Fixed Bias: Uses resistor in parallel with Transistor emitter-base junction.
  • Combination Bias: This form of bias stabilization uses a combination of the emitter resistor form and a voltage divider. It is designed to compensate for both temperature effects as well as minor fluctuations in supply (bias) voltage.
  • Emitter Resister Bias: As temperature increases, current flow will increase. This will result in an increased voltage drop across the emitter resistor which opposes the potential on the emitter of the transistor.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

self bias schematic

Self Bias Schematic

+VCC

+

+

+

RC

o

o

Initial Input

Self Bias Feedback

+

RB

Q1

o

+

VOUT

=

o

Resulting Input

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

emitter bias schematic

Emitter Bias Schematic

+VCC

DC Component

AC Component

RC

+

RB

++

+

+

Q1

o

-

o

VOUT

Initial Input

+

CE

RE

-

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

combination bias schematic

Combination Bias Schematic

+VCC

DC Component

AC Component

RC

+

RB1

++

+

+

Q1

o

o

RB2

-

VOUT

Initial Input

+

CE

RE

-

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

amplifier frequency response

Amplifier Frequency Response

  • The range or band of input signal frequencies over which an amplifier operates with a constant gain.
  • Amplifier types and frequency response ranges.
    • Audio Amplifier
      • 15 Hz to 20 KHz
    • Radio Frequency (RF) Amplifier
      • 10 KHz to 100,000 MHz
    • Video Amplifier (Wide Band Amplifier)
      • 10 Hz to 6 MHz

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

class a amplifier curve

Class ‘A’ Amplifier Curve

IB

IC

90 uA

80 uA

70 uA

Saturation

60 uA

50 uA

40 uA

30 uA

Q-Point

20 uA

10 uA

0 uA

VCE

Cutoff

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

class b amplifier curve

Class ‘B’ Amplifier Curve

IB

IC

90 uA

80 uA

70 uA

Saturation

60 uA

50 uA

40 uA

30 uA

Q-Point

20 uA

10 uA

0 uA

VCE

Cutoff

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

class ab amplifier curve

Class ‘AB’ Amplifier Curve

Can be used for guitar distortion.

IB

IC

90 uA

80 uA

70 uA

Saturation

60 uA

50 uA

40 uA

30 uA

20 uA

Q-Point

10 uA

0 uA

VCE

Cutoff

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

class c amplifier curve

Class ‘C’ Amplifier Curve

IB

IC

90 uA

80 uA

70 uA

Saturation

60 uA

50 uA

40 uA

30 uA

20 uA

10 uA

0 uA

Q-Point

VCE

Cutoff

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

amplifier coupling methods

Amplifier Coupling Methods

  • Direct: The output of the first stage is directly connected to the input of the second stage. Best Frequency Response - No frequency sensitive components.
  • Impedance (LC) Coupling: Similar to RC coupling but an inductor is used in place of the resistor. Not normally used in Audio Amplifiers.
  • RC Coupling: Most common form of coupling used. Poor Frequency Response.
  • Transformer Coupling: Most expensive form coupling used. Mainly used as the last stage or power output stage of a string of amplifiers.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

direct coupling schematic

+VCC2

Direct Coupling Schematic

RC2

+VCC1

RB2

RC1

Q2

RB1

Q1

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

rc coupling schematic

+VCC2

RC Coupling Schematic

RC2

+VCC1

RB2

RC1

Q2

CC

RB1

Q1

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

impedance coupling schematic

+VCC2

Impedance Coupling Schematic

RC2

+VCC1

RB2

Q2

CC

RB1

Q1

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

transformer coupling schematic

+VCC2

Transformer Coupling Schematic

RC2

+VCC1

RB2

RC1

Q2

RB1

T1

Q1

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

silicon controlled rectifiers

Silicon Controlled Rectifiers

  • Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCR)
    • Construction
      • Block Diagram

Anode

Cathode

P

N

P

N

Left Floating Region

Gate

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

opamp voltage regulators

OPAMP Voltage Regulators

-

+

Vin

Vout

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

scr schematic

SCR Schematic

Anode

Cathode

Gate

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

scr bias

SCR Bias

  • When the SCR is forward biased and a gate signal is applied, the lightly doped gate region’s holes will fill with the free electrons forced in from the cathode.

FB

FB

Anode

Cathode

-

P

N

P

N

+

RB

Gate

+

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

scr operation

SCR Operation

  • Acts as an electronic switch
  • Essentially a rectifier diode which has a controllable “Turn - on” point. Can be switched approximately 25,000 times per second.
  • Once the SCR conducts, the gate signal can be removed. The difference in potential across the anode & cathode of the SCR will maintain current flow.
  • When the voltage across the SCR drops to a level below the “Minimum Holding” value, the PN junctions will reform and current flow through the SCR will stop.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

scr phase control

SCR Phase Control

  • The term Phase Control refers to a process where varying the timing of the gate signal to an SCR will vary the length of time that the SCR conducts.
    • This will determine the amount of Voltage or Power delivered to a load.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

unijunction transistors ujt

Unijunction Transistors (UJT)

  • Construction: Originally called “Double-based Diodes.”
    • “P” Type material doped into the “N” type base material.
    • Placement of the Emitter into the Base determines the voltage level (%) at which the the UJT fires.
      • This % is called the “Intrinsic Standoff Ratio ( ).”
        • Once constructed, the Intrinsic Standoff Ratio cannot be changed.
      • The actual voltage value at which the UJT fires is determined by the amount of source voltage applied.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

ujt block diagram

UJT Block Diagram

Base 2

Equivalent Circuit

Base 2

Emitter

P

N

Emitter

Base 1

Base 1

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

ujt schematic symbol

UJT Schematic Symbol

Base 2

Emitter

Base 1

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

ujt no operation

UJT No Operation

  • When VE is less than or equal to the voltage base one to emitter requirement (VE - B1), the UJT will not fire.

Base 2

++

Depletion Region

No Current Flow

Emitter

P

N

+

-

Base 1

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

ujt operation

UJT Operation

  • When VE is more than the voltage base one to emitter requirement (VE - B1), the UJT will fire.

Base 2

++

UJT Fires

Emitter

P

N

+

VE > VE-B1

-

Base 1

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

ujt sawtooth generator

UJT Sawtooth Generator

R1

Q1

VBB

B2

E

SW1

C1

B1

VOUT

C1 Charge

C1 Discharge

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

ujt relaxation oscillator

UJT Relaxation Oscillator

+

VOUT1

RB2

R1

VBB

VOUT2

+

VOUT2

Q1

VOUT1

+

C1

SW1

VOUT3

VOUT3

RB1

C1 Charge

C1 Discharge

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

ujt relaxation oscillator57

UJT Relaxation Oscillator

  • The output of the Oscillator can be used for sweep generators, gating circuit for SCR’s, as well as timing pulses for counting and timing circuits.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

questions58
Questions
  • Q3. What is the phase relationship between input and output voltage in a common emitter circuit?
  • A3. 180 degrees.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

more questions
More Questions
  • Q4. What type of transistor bias uses both self and fixed bias?
  • A4. Combination bias.
  • Q5. What is the frequency response range of an RF amplifier?
  • A5. 10Khz – 100, 000 Mhz.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide60
. Silicon Bilateral Switch (SBS)
    • . Construction

J1

J2

P

N

P

A2

A1

G

A2

A1

G

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide61
. Schematic Symbol

Anode 2

Anode 1

A2

A1

Gate

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide62
. Characteristic Curve

I (mA)

Reverse Breakover Voltage

Breakback Voltage

V A2-A1

Forward Breakover Voltage

Holding Current (IHO)

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide63
. Characteristics
    • . More vigorous switching characteristic. V to almost zero.
    • . More temperature stable.
    • . More symmetrical wave form output.
    • . Popular in low voltage trigger control circuits.
  • . Theory
    • . Lower breakover voltages than Diac. (+/- 8V is most popular).
    • . SBS has more pronounced “Negative Resistance” region.
    • . It’s decline in voltages is more drastic after it enters the conductive state.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide64
. Operation
    • . As shown below, if a zener diode is placed in the gate circuit between “G” and “A1”, the forward breakover voltage (+VBO) can be altered to approximately that of the zener voltage (VZ).
      • . -VBO is unaffected.

SBS

A2

A1

G

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide65
. Characteristic Curve

I (mA)

Reverse Breakover Voltage

Breakback Voltage

V A2-A1

Forward Breakover Voltage

Holding Current (IHO)

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide66
Silicon Unilateral Switch (SUS)
    • Construction

Cathode

Anode

P

N

P

N

Gate

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide67
. Schematic Symbol

Anode

Cathode

Gate

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide68
Theory
    • Similar to the four (4) layer diode except the +VBO can be altered by using the gate terminal voltage.
  • Operation

I

{

}

Much greater than Forward Breakover Voltage

Reverse Breakdown Voltage

-V A-C

V A-C

Forward Breakover Voltage

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide69
. Varactor
    • . Construction

P

N

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide70
. Theory
    • . For testing purposes, a front to back ratio of 10:1 is considered normal.
    • . The size of the depletion region in a varactor diode is directly proportional to the amount of bias applied.
      • . As forward bias increases, capacitance (Depletion region) decreases.
      • . As reverse bias increases, capacitance (Depletion region) increases.
    • . In the capacitance equation below, it is shown that only the distance between plates can be changed.

Where: A = Plate Area

C = Ak

k = Constant

d

d = Distance between plates

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide71
. An increase in reverse bias increases the width of the gap (d) which reduces the capacitance of the PN junction and vice versa.
    • . Advantage: Allows DC voltage to be used to tune a circuit for simple remote control or automatic tuning function.
  • . Operation
    • . used to replace old style variable capacitor tuning circuits.
    • . They are used in tuning circuits of more sophisticated communications equipment and in other circuits where variable capacitance is required.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide72

Depletion Region

20F

5F

P

N

P

N

3V

6V

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide73
. Special Purpose Amplifiers
    • . Differential Amplifier
      • . Schematic Diagram

+ VCC

RC (1)

RC (2)

RB (1)

VOUT

RB (2)

VIN (1)

VIN (2)

Q1

Q2

RE

- VEE

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide74
. Operation

+ VCC

RC (1)

-

RC (2)

+

+

+

RB (1)

VOUT

RB (2)

++

++

+

+

0

0

VIN (1)

VIN (2)

Q1

-

-

Q2

RE

+

- VEE

VOUT

(+) / (-) ARE ASSIGNED BY WHICH VOLTMETER LEAD IS USED AS THE REFERENCE

0

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide75
. Operational Amplifiers (OPAMPS)
    • .Block Diagram (Basic)

+ vCC

INVERTING INPUT

-

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER

OUTPPUT AMPLIFIER

OUTPUT

+

NON-INVERTING INPUT

- vEE

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide76
. Ideal OPAMP Characteristics
    • . Infinite () Input Impedance
      • Draws little or no current from source.
    • . Zero Output Impedance
    • . Infinite () Gain
    • . Infinite () Frequency Response
      • Constant gain over any range of input signal frequencies.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide77
. Types of OPAMPS
    • . Linear (Output is Proportional to Input)
      • . Inverting

RF

+

+

+

-

VIN

VOUT

+

0

0

R1

-

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide78
. Non - Inverting

RF

+

+

-

VOUT

+

R1

+

VIN

0

-

0

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide79
. Summing

+

R1

+

VIN1

0

VIN1

R2

+

RF

VIN2

VIN2

R3

0

0

+

VIN3

+

VIN3

R4

0

-

+

VIN4

VIN4

VOUT

+

0

R5

-

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide80
. Difference

+

R1

+

VIN1

0

VIN1

R2

+

RF

VIN2

VIN2

0

0

+

+

VIN3

R3

0

-

+

VIN3

R4

VIN4

VOUT

+

0

VIN4

R5

+

-

VIN5

VIN5

0

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide81
.Non - Linear (Output is not Proportional to Input)
    • . Comparator

VREF ATTACHED TO EITHER + OR - TERMINALS

(EXAMPLE SHOWS OUTPUT WITH VREF CONNECTED TO THE NON-INVERTING TERMINAL.)

(WAVEFORM WOULD BE INVERTED IF VREF WAS ATTACHED TO THE INVERTING TERMINAL)

+

VIN

VREF

+

0

-

+

VIN

VOUT

+

VOUT

0

-

VREF

-

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide82
. Differentiator

RF

+

+

C1

+

-

VIN

VOUT

+

0

0

R1

-

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

slide83
. Integrator

C1

+

+

+

-

VIN

VOUT

+

0

0

R1

-

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics