Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include:

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  1. Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include: • Earthquakes, particularly normal or reverse (thrust) faulting where displacement along the fault is up-down • Submarine slump, usually (but not always) initiated by an earthquake. GREATEST TSUNAMI HAZARD TO THE UNITED STATES • Volcanic eruptions, particularly those involving submarine volcanic explosions and/or caldera collapse. Krakatau, 1883 • Landslide or Rockfall • Prehistoric, but with ample geological evidence: • 6) Volcanic Flank Collapse (Hawaii, Canary Islands) • 7) Meteorite Impact

  2. Fig. 5-9, p.105

  3. Fig. 5-10, p.105

  4. Fig. 5-1a, p.100

  5. Fig. 13-2, p.327

  6. Fig. 13-3, p.327

  7. Fig. 5-1b, p.100

  8. Chilean Earthquake May 1960 • (Largest earthquake in recorded history M = 9.5): • Hilo, Hawaii: wave refraction focuses energy into the bay • Onagawa, Japan: example of “Trough first”

  9. Fig. 5-30, p.117

  10. Fig. 5-29, p.117

  11. Fig. 5-4, p.103

  12. Fig. 5-6, p.104

  13. 05CO, p.99

  14. Fig. 5-32, p.118

  15. Fig. 5-7, p.104

  16. Submarine slump, usually (but not always) initiated by an earthquake. GREATEST TSUNAMI HAZARD TO THE UNITED STATES • Sediment on the edge of steep continental slope, particularly near trenches and submarine canyons, can be mobilized into a submarine slide. • Examples: • Papua, New Guinea, 1998 • -3 waves of 14 meters kill 2,500 people after moderate earthquake (Richter 7) • 2) Nicaragua, September 1992: Richter 7 caused tsunami with runup of 10 meters. Seafloor survey conducted afterward showed slide “scars” • Both examples near subduction zone, so these may be thrust fault generated like Indonesia, but…

  17. Fig. 5-33a, p.119

  18. Fig. 5-33b, p.119

  19. Fig. 5-34, p.119

  20. Fig. 5-36, p.120

  21. Fig. 5-37, p.121

  22. Fig. 5-35, p.120

  23. Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include: • Earthquakes, particularly normal or reverse (thrust) faulting where displacement along the fault is up-down • Submarine slump, usually (but not always) initiated by an earthquake. GREATEST TSUNAMI HAZARD TO THE UNITED STATES • Volcanic eruptions, particularly those involving submarine volcanic explosions and/or caldera collapse. Krakatau, 1883 • Landslide or Rockfall • Prehistoric, but with ample geological evidence: • 6) Volcanic Flank Collapse (Hawaii, Canary Islands) • 7) Meteorite Impact

  24. Fig. 5-16, p.109

  25. Fig. 5-20, p.111

  26. Fig. 5-21, p.112

  27. Fig. 5-22, p.112

  28. Fig. 5-24, p.114