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Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include: PowerPoint Presentation
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Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include: Earthquakes , particularly normal or reverse (thrust) faulting where displacement along the fault is up-down

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slide1

Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include:

  • Earthquakes, particularly normal or reverse (thrust) faulting where displacement along the fault is up-down
  • Submarine slump, usually (but not always) initiated by an earthquake. GREATEST TSUNAMI HAZARD TO THE UNITED STATES
  • Volcanic eruptions, particularly those involving submarine volcanic explosions and/or caldera collapse. Krakatau, 1883
  • Landslide or Rockfall
  • Prehistoric, but with ample geological evidence:
  • 6) Volcanic Flank Collapse (Hawaii, Canary Islands)
  • 7) Meteorite Impact
slide11

Chilean Earthquake May 1960

  • (Largest earthquake in recorded history M = 9.5):
  • Hilo, Hawaii: wave refraction focuses energy into the bay
  • Onagawa, Japan: example of “Trough first”
slide19

Submarine slump, usually (but not always) initiated by an earthquake. GREATEST TSUNAMI HAZARD TO THE UNITED STATES

  • Sediment on the edge of steep continental slope, particularly near trenches and submarine canyons, can be mobilized into a submarine slide.
  • Examples:
  • Papua, New Guinea, 1998
  • -3 waves of 14 meters kill 2,500 people after moderate earthquake (Richter 7)
  • 2) Nicaragua, September 1992: Richter 7 caused tsunami with runup of 10 meters. Seafloor survey conducted afterward showed slide “scars”
  • Both examples near subduction zone, so these may be thrust fault generated like Indonesia, but…
slide26

Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include:

  • Earthquakes, particularly normal or reverse (thrust) faulting where displacement along the fault is up-down
  • Submarine slump, usually (but not always) initiated by an earthquake. GREATEST TSUNAMI HAZARD TO THE UNITED STATES
  • Volcanic eruptions, particularly those involving submarine volcanic explosions and/or caldera collapse. Krakatau, 1883
  • Landslide or Rockfall
  • Prehistoric, but with ample geological evidence:
  • 6) Volcanic Flank Collapse (Hawaii, Canary Islands)
  • 7) Meteorite Impact