Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water.  Tsunami initiation events include:
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Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include: Earthquakes , particularly normal or reverse (thrust) faulting where displacement along the fault is up-down

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  • Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include:

  • Earthquakes, particularly normal or reverse (thrust) faulting where displacement along the fault is up-down

  • Submarine slump, usually (but not always) initiated by an earthquake. GREATEST TSUNAMI HAZARD TO THE UNITED STATES

  • Volcanic eruptions, particularly those involving submarine volcanic explosions and/or caldera collapse. Krakatau, 1883

  • Landslide or Rockfall

  • Prehistoric, but with ample geological evidence:

  • 6) Volcanic Flank Collapse (Hawaii, Canary Islands)

  • 7) Meteorite Impact


Fig. 5-9, p.105 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-10, p.105 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-1a, p.100 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 13-2, p.327 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 13-3, p.327 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-1b, p.100 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


  • Chilean Earthquake May 1960 water. Tsunami initiation events include:

  • (Largest earthquake in recorded history M = 9.5):

  • Hilo, Hawaii: wave refraction focuses energy into the bay

  • Onagawa, Japan: example of “Trough first”


Fig. 5-30, p.117 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-29, p.117 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-4, p.103 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-6, p.104 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


05CO, p.99 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-32, p.118 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-7, p.104 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


  • Submarine slump water. Tsunami initiation events include:, usually (but not always) initiated by an earthquake. GREATEST TSUNAMI HAZARD TO THE UNITED STATES

  • Sediment on the edge of steep continental slope, particularly near trenches and submarine canyons, can be mobilized into a submarine slide.

  • Examples:

  • Papua, New Guinea, 1998

  • -3 waves of 14 meters kill 2,500 people after moderate earthquake (Richter 7)

  • 2) Nicaragua, September 1992: Richter 7 caused tsunami with runup of 10 meters. Seafloor survey conducted afterward showed slide “scars”

  • Both examples near subduction zone, so these may be thrust fault generated like Indonesia, but…


Fig. 5-33a, p.119 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-33b, p.119 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-34, p.119 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-36, p.120 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-37, p.121 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-35, p.120 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


  • Tsunami generation requires the sudden displacement of water. Tsunami initiation events include:

  • Earthquakes, particularly normal or reverse (thrust) faulting where displacement along the fault is up-down

  • Submarine slump, usually (but not always) initiated by an earthquake. GREATEST TSUNAMI HAZARD TO THE UNITED STATES

  • Volcanic eruptions, particularly those involving submarine volcanic explosions and/or caldera collapse. Krakatau, 1883

  • Landslide or Rockfall

  • Prehistoric, but with ample geological evidence:

  • 6) Volcanic Flank Collapse (Hawaii, Canary Islands)

  • 7) Meteorite Impact


Fig. 5-16, p.109 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-20, p.111 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-21, p.112 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-22, p.112 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


Fig. 5-24, p.114 water. Tsunami initiation events include:


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