Review • What is totalitarianism? • Name the two types of totalitarian governments. • What is fascism? • Who was the fascist dictator of Italy? • What group did Mussolini create to deal with strikes? • What type of people supported Mussolini? • What was Mussolini’s take over known as? • What was the name of Mussolini’s secret police? • Name some of Mussolini’s control methods.
Background • 1914-1917 WWI and Russian RevolutionCivil War between Communists and Anti-Communists • Lenin wins the civil war for the communists • Lenin became the first communist dictator
What is Communism? 1.The working class people will overthrow the capitalists (business men), kings, and church. Classless society with no government! Everyone is equal. 2. Because nothing is made for profit, all people benefit from education and health. 4. All human activity goes towards benefiting each other. 3. As everyone now works together, war is a thing of the past – armies are not needed. Sharing means no police are needed. Everything is provided by the people – so money becomes a thing of the past.
Communism in Reality… • Complete government control of the economy • NOT the workers who control economy • Government led by a dictator who has total power • True communism based on Karl Marx’s ideas was never achieved
Rise of Stalin • Lenin dies in 1924 • Stalin gains control of Communist party as the General Secretary • Trotsky killed • By 1929 Stalin creates a dictatorship • Communist Party is the only party • Cult of Personality- when an individual uses propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealized public image.
Stalin’s Theory • The proletariat (working class) will reap the benefits of hard work • The bourgeoisie (the middle class) will sacrifice for the greater good • Economic equality for all • Emphasized military production, heavy machines, and production of steel • Adopts the name Stalin which means “Man of Steel”
Economic Policies • Stalin feared S.U. would be overwhelmed by capitalist west • 5 Year Plan • Brought all agricultural and industrial production under government control (command economy) • Collectivization- a system of farming in which the government owned the land and used peasants to farm it • Result- Soviet Union emerges an industrial power
Stalin’s Great Purge • Remove all opponents from Soviet Life • Kills former Bolshevik members • He purges army officers, diplomats, union officials, party members, intellectuals, and ordinary citizens • Kills or sends to labor camps Kulaks (wealthy farmers) who resisted collectivization • His policies and executions led to the death of 25 million people 'We will keep out Kulaks from the Collective farms'
The Arts • All artistic and cultural activities under the Communist party’s control • Maksim Gorky- in charge of all Soviet culture • Writers and artists had to create art centered on Soviet heroes and achievements
The Hammer and the Sickle • This is the symbol of Communism – The Hammer and the Sickle • Hammer- Workers • Sickle- peasants/farmers
Religion • Organized religion was a threat to the worker because the loyalty of individual workers should be to each other, not to a supreme being. As a result, Stalin took steps to limit the power of religion in the USSR. Churches and mosques were closed and converted into schools or movie theaters. Religious icons were melted down, and meetings were banned throughout the country. Religion was forced to go underground, in order to hide from the prying eyes of Stalin's police. "You know, they are fooling us, there is no God... all this talk about God is sheer nonsense." - Stalin
Education • Expanded the education system • In schools children were taught to be the perfect citizen • Indoctrination – instruction of government beliefs to control people’s minds