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Ronald Reagan. Speech to National Association of Evangelicals: “Evil Empire” speech, March 10, 1983. Reagan’s View of the USSR. Alexander Haig 1981-1982. George Shultz 1982-1989. Realist Secretaries of State. The Problems. Third Wave of Marxism Viet Nam Syndrome Decade of Neglect.

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Ronald Reagan

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realist secretaries of state
Alexander Haig


George Shultz


Realist Secretaries of State
the problems
The Problems
  • Third Wave of Marxism
  • Viet Nam Syndrome
  • Decade of Neglect
1 third wave of marxism
1. Third Wave of Marxism
  • Cambodia, Viet Nam
  • Angola, Ethiopia, Mozambique
  • Afghanistan
  • Nicaragua and leftist revolution in El Salvador


  • UNITA’s Jonas Savimbi
2 viet nam syndrome
2. Viet Nam Syndrome
  • Fall of Saigon, April 29, 1975
3 decade of neglect
3. Decade of Neglect

From: ARMING AMERICA: Attention and Inertia in U.S. National Security Spending

soviet icbms 1980s 90s
Soviet ICBMs 1980s-90s
  • From, US Dept of Defense, Soviet Military Power, 1987:
solution to decade of neglect
Solution to Decade of Neglect
  • Source: Center for Defense Information 2004 Yearbook (
strategic defense initiative
Strategic Defense Initiative

Reagan’s SDI speech, March 23, 1983


revolution in nicaragua
Anastasio Somoza

Pres. of Nicaragua

Daniel Ortega, leader of the Sandinistas

Revolution in Nicaragua
key phrase of 2 nd boland amendment 1984 1986
Key Phrase of 2ndBoland Amendment: (1984-1986)

''No funds available to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense or any other agency or entity of the United States involved in intelligence activities may be obligated or expended for the purpose or which would have the effect of supporting, directly or indirectly, military or paramilitary operations in Nicaragua by any nation, group, organization, movement or individual.'‘

From: NY TIMES on line:; For Excerpts and explanation, from US Government Accountability Office – GAO,

contra scandal
Contra Scandal

Private US $

Foreign Gov’t $


Swiss bank



by Oliver North

of NSC Staff

some congressional restrictions on arms sales in 1980s
Some Congressional Restrictions on Arms Sales in 1980s

Arms Export Control Acts

  • No arms sales to nations determined to be sponsors of terrorism (US State Dept determines which nations fit into this category; it included Iran)
  • No arms sales of over $25 m in value without congressional approval (1974); A 1976 bill lowered this to $14 m for sophisticated weaponry and $50 m for other items
    • Both the House and Senate would have to reject the arms sales
the iran contra scandal
The Iran Contra Scandal


Private US $

Foreign Gov’t $





Swiss bank



by North




the fight over the contras
The Fight Over the Contras

William Adm. John Lt. Col.

Casey Poindexter Oliver North

big picture issue
Big Picture Issue

Congress has the power to restrict US government spending

Can the President ignore those restrictions?

Can President ignore aspects of law President does not agree with?

If so, does Congress have any role to shape foreign policy?

If so, do we have checks and balances?

the end of the cold war
The End of the Cold War

Leonid Yuri Konstantin

Brezhnev Andropov Chernenko

1964-1982 1982-1984 1984-1985

new soviet leadership
New Soviet Leadership

General Secretary

Mikhail Gorbachev

Foreign Minister

Eduard Shevardnadze

gorbachev s new thinking
Gorbachev’s New Thinking

Perestroika: Restructuring

Glasnost: Openness

Foreign Policy

1987: Intermediate Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty

1990: Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty

1991: Strategic Arms reduction Treaty (START) Treaty

Why did the USSR collapse?

Why did the Cold War end?