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Punishment. Behavior. Increase Decrease. Positive Reinforcement. Positive Punishment. Presented Remove Or Omitted. Negative Punishment. Negative Reinforcement. So, reinforcement= behavior punishment= behavior. stimulus. Positive Punishment

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slide2

Behavior

Increase Decrease

Positive

Reinforcement

Positive

Punishment

Presented

Remove

Or

Omitted

Negative

Punishment

Negative

Reinforcement

So, reinforcement= behavior

punishment= behavior

stimulus

types of punishment
Positive Punishment

Generally referred to as Punishment

When response occurs, consequence is presentation of an aversive stimulus

Probability of response decreases = 

Negative Punishment

More often referred to as Penalty

When response occurs, consequence is removal of a reinforcer

Probability of response decreases = 

Types of Punishment
slide4

Punishment

A behavior reduction process in which the occurrence of a behavior is followed by an aversive stimulus (punisher)

Negative

Behavior  Adverse Consequence

Behavior TAKES something desirable environment

Positive

Behavior  Adverse Consequence Behavior ADDS something undesirable environment

  • Speeding  $ bye bye
  • Child fighting no recess
  • Cheat girlfriend bye bye
  • Touch a stove  get burned
  • Risky sexual beh.  STD
  • Pay Bill late  late charge
slide5

Last winter Alvin went downhill skiing for the first time. He had a bad fall on the ski hill and broke his leg. What impact will this have on Alvin’s skiing?

If Alvin is less likely to go downhill skiing in the future because of this consequence, then his skiing behavior has been punished

as with reinforcement punishment
As with Reinforcement, Punishment:

Primary and Secondary Punishers

  • Primary Punisher: does not require learning to be effective
    • pain is avoided from birth
    • hunger
  • Secondary Punisher: ..experience: punishment that was originally neutral and became aversive through pairing it with a primary punisher
    • for example, loss of an allowance has been associated with inability to buy things which has been associated with hunger
slide7
Intrinsic & Extrinsic Punishment
  • Intrinsic = the activity itself is punishing
    • for example, riding a roller coaster makes you feel sick; you’re less likely to ride another one because it was inherently punishing
  • Extrinsic = the activity is followed by a separate event that is punishing
    • for example, being rude to a parent results in loss of your allowance for the week; you’re less likely to be rude to your parent in the near future
slide9

Does punishment work?

Skinner (1938)

- 2 grps rats – VI of lever pressing for food (3 session)

- 4th session - extinction

- Punishment: slap on paw – 1st 10 min

slide10

Estes (1944)

Trained to Lever press for food

3 Extinction session – 2 grps (con & press + shock)

Only shocked during 1st Extinction session

slide11

Azrin (1960)

  • Pigeons (key pressing)
    • VI schedule
    • punishment introduced “mild shock”
    • first decreased response
    • Over course of sessions behavior back to normal
    • habitation to the mild shock
slide12

Does punishment work in animals?

Punishment works…“Temporary Suppression”

Not good for changing behavior for the long-term

Revision of Thorndikes “Law of Effect”

…punishing a response does nothing to the

strength of connection… unsatisfying

consequence doesn’t make behavior less

slide13

Effect of Shock Intensity on Responses

15 min

Boe & Church (1967)

Punishment worked

slide14

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment

Effective Punishers must be…

1. manner of introduction (intensity)

2. immediacy of punishment (delay)

3. schedule of punishment

slide15

1. Manner of Introduction

Intensity

Punishment needs to be immediately introduced

at full intensity

Azrin, Holtz & Hake (1963)

Pigeons (key pressing)

80 v – total suppression

60 v – no suppression then up to 300 v suppression

If punisher to mild could backfire

slide16

2. Immediacy of Punishment (Delay)

Delay between response --------- punishment

Less time between these 2 more effective

slide17

Solomon, Turner, Lessac (1968)

Stage 1

Dogs offered choice between preferred/nonpreferred food

Room with experimenter & 2 dishes

Eat good stuff = wack on snout with newspaper

Delay of hit on snout  0, 5 & 15 sec

3 to 4 wacks dogs learned not to eat good food for all groups

slide18

Solomon, Turner, Lessac (1968)

Stage 2 – How effective was punishment?

Later “temptation trials” (10 min)

No experimenter in room – 500g good /20g bad stuff

Food deprived – hungry

How longs for dogs to eat?

15 sec delay = 3 min

5 sec delay = 8 days

0 sec delay = 2 weeks

“wait till your Dad gets home”

slide19

Factors influencing the effectiveness of punishment

3. Schedule of punishment

FR

FI

VR

VI

CRF is best / FR 1 vs Fr 1000

Punishment is not similar to Reinforcement

slide20

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment

Effective Punishers must be…

1. manner of introduction (intensity)

2. immediacy of punishment (delay)

3. schedule of punishment

slide21

Punishment in Humans

same as animals?

Bucher & Lovaas (1968)

Electric shock used on Autistic child

Highly destructive behavior

Case Study “John” (7 yr old)

OCD – banging head/hitting self

Hospitalized – kept in restraints

Reinforcement didn’t work

Shocked after destructive behavior

slide22

250 tx

E= punisher

Punishment very effective in controlling human behavior

1. Can promote long-term suppression of behavior (5 yrs)

2. Environment can control the response (stimulus control)

slide23

Punishment in humans

Same as animals but new addition**

Manner of introduction (Intensity): self mutilation behavior in mentally retarded – mild shock did not work but greater did

Schedule: FR1 – Mom’s kept diary of punishment, higher proportion of bad behavior to punishment = less misbehaving…

same with arrests  higher proportion of arrests followed by punishment = less likely to re offend

slide24

Immediacy of punishment (Delay): similar to dogs  toys

  • Aronfreed (1968) repeated Solomon’s Study
  • Children (pairs of toys) attractive and no so attractive
  • The attractive one was always punished (take away candy)
  •  delays of 0, 2, 6, or 12 seconds
  • All groups learned to avoid the toy (after 2-3 punishments)
  • Results:
  • In extinction:
  • Only 50% 0 & 2 sec delay groups reached …after 5 min
  • Other groups all reached and in less than 1 min
slide25

Explanation for punishment

Aronfreed (1968) – immediacy of punishment

Added a group  punished when picking up toy but

given explanation for why they should not do so

Explanation group significantly more likely to resist

the temptation of the toy

**Accompanied by a clear (fair) example

slide26

Explanation for punishment – more info on why…better

Cheyne (1969) – Children with toys (3rd graders)

Punished group of children for picking up toy

“That’s Bad”

“That’s bad you shouldn’t play with it”

“That’s bad you shouldn’t play with it because that

toy belongs to someone else”

Full explanation group significantly more likely to resist

the temptation of the toy

slide28

Punishment

  • Immediate
  • Firm
  • Consistent
  • Delivered in a variety of settings
  • Clear & Fair Explanation
slide29
Nearly 50% of drunk drivers are repeat offenders
    • Punishment isn’t strong enough
    • Stronger punishments are more effective and last longer
  • To be effective punishment must occur every time
    • Odds of getting caught drunk driving are 1/2000
  • Punishment for drunk driving occurs much later then the offense
    • Punishment should not be delayed
slide30

Punishment…works with involuntary behavior???

YES….Heller & Strang (1873)

  • Bruxism: Grinding and gnashing teeth
  • 5 % of College Students
  • damage to jaw and teeth
  • social implications
  • Baseline (noise activated device): 100 ocurrances/hr
  • Pt. Wore ear plug…3 sec burst of noise when activated
  • Decreased grinding to 30/hr
  • Also effective for chronic coughing, sneezing, vomitting
slide31

Side Effects of Punishment

1. Emotional Effects

Fear

Anger

Impact on learning & Performance

slide32

The strong emotional responses that accompany punishment may interfere with the ability to attend to and/or learn from the situation: narrowing of attention …Like the Yerkes-Dodson law

slide33

College students

  • Memory tasks
  • Mistake punished by shock or by a tone
  • Shock group worked slower & made more mistakes

Balaban et al (1990)

teacher  goal to reduce mistakes…punishment

can backfire

slide34
CER (Emotions) may be classically conditioned to stimuli associated with punishment
    • e.g., fear and anxiety to the person and/or situation; person may avoid the person administering punishment
    • Martin (1977)
      • Boys working on series of tasks were praised, reprimanded or ignored for effort
      • Put more effort into reprimanded tasks
      • In absence of teacher, reprimanded tasks were never freely chosen

…avoided the teacher…

slide35

Side Effects of Punishment

Aggression

  • Against punisher or anyone around
  • “pain elicited aggression”

Ulrich & Azrin (1962)

2 rats peaceful

Get shocks = fighting

“attack when hurt”

Been shown in cats, raccoons, monkeys & alligators

Prison!

slide36

Berkowitz, Cochrane & Embree (1979)

  • - University Women
  • Cold/warm water
  • Reinforcement vs punishment of partner
  • Cold water = more punishment
  • “Teachers” with their hand in ice-cold water chose to be more punitive with their “Pupils”

Modeling For children: Learning that punishment is acceptable…

slide37

Side Effects of Punishment

Spanking….

Toilet Accidents = Bedwetting children

Dedendency = more dependent

Aggressive = more aggressive children

Please someone do this for their paper….

Does spanking work?

slide38

Side Effects of Punishment

2. Low Generalization: Continual Monitoring  Guilt

In real world situation must monitor continually

“Daddy, I did something wrong…come punish me”

No likely to happen!

Suppress behavior only in the presence of punisher

..may lead to guilt

slide39

Side Effects of Punishment

3. Circumvent punishment

  • Clever Rats
  • Received shock for lever pressing (food)
  • rat learned to still display behavior
  • lying on back – fur served as buffer from shock

People more ingenious

slide40

Side Effects of Punishment

4. General Suppression of Behavior

Ex: classroom behavior  reduce needless questions

“that’s a stupid question”  not only reduce

“stupid questions” but all questions

Entire Class

+

..indicates “what not” to do instead of “what to do”…no additional learning required…

slide41

Side Effects of Punishment

5. Learned Helplessness

  • Giving up  helpless to control the situation
  • No need to try and avoid & escape
  • Seligman (1967)
  • 10 sec warning signal of shock  50 sec of shock
  • over barrier escape…tone=no shock: during shock=no shock
  • Control grp learned to escape
  • Tx group = 64 inescapable shocks
  • Con quickly learned to jump over
  • Tx group did not learn…took shocks

Floor (shock)

is punishment effective
Is Punishment Effective?
  • Punishment is most effective when it is immediate, firm, consistent, delivered in a variety of settings, and when it is accompanied by a clear (and fair) explanation
  • Under these circumstances, punishment can be a powerful technique for suppressing behavior

But negative Effects….why do people use punishment?….

slide43

Reinforcing to the Punisher…

Immediate effect…works for that

Immediate situation

Which type if reinforcement???

Negative..increase behavior to take bad behavior away

slide45

Mild Forms of Punishment (negative)

Time Out (time out from positive reinforcement): involves

secluding or ignoring an individual so that access to positive

reinforcers are cut off for a specified short period of time

extinction..

Misbehavior results in removal to a less

Reinforcing environment for a specified period

Sit in corner  make sure that the new environment

does not provide any reinforcement

slide46

ABAB TX Design

10 episodes

Stan (brain injury) fro hoarding cig butts, pieces of dust,

Food, socks, underwear in pockets

Time out: 10 min in quiet area + reinforcement for good behavior

slide47

Response cost (Token Economies)

Withdrawl of previously earned reinforcers

 Reinforcer is taken away following behavior

appears to be most effective when combined with

reinforcement of appropriate behavior

Token Economies  lost points or tokens

slide48

Response Cost

  • Children…
slide49

Reprimands–

  • scolding or admonishing as punishment
  • reprimands are often more effective when they
  • are accompanied by eye contact or a firm grip –
  • or spoken quietly in close proximity
  • to the child being punished
slide50

Restitution and Overcorrection

  • People take actions that correct the results of their misdeeds
  • a misbehaving individual must return the environment to the same state of affairs it was in before the misbehavior
  • e.g., a child who breaks a window must pay for a new one; child who makes a mess must clean it up 
  • Restitution is a good example of a logical consequence, where the punishment fits the crime. 
slide51

Overcorrection

  • Restitutional & Positive Practice
  • (1) Restitutional overcorrection, the punished
  • individual must make things better than they were before the inappropriate behavior
  • e.g., a student who throws food in the lunchroom has to clean the whole lunchroom
slide52

Overcorrection

  • (2) Positive Practice -- 
  • an individual must repeat an action, this time doing it correctly, perhaps in an exaggerated fashion
  • e.g., a student who runs dangerously down a corridor might be asked to go back and walk (perhaps in slow motion) down the hall