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PUNISHMENT. Chapter 4. PUNISHMENT CONTINGENCY. The immediate, response contingent presentation of an aversive condition resulting in a decreased frequency of that response. Aversive Condition.

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punishment

PUNISHMENT

Chapter 4

punishment contingency
PUNISHMENT CONTINGENCY
  • The immediate,
  • response contingent presentation
  • of an aversive condition
  • resulting in a decreased frequency of that response
slide3

Aversive Condition

  • Any stimulus, event, or condition whose termination immediately following a response increases the frequency of that response = ESCAPE
  • Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately following a response decreases the frequency of that response = PUNISHMENT
aversive conditions
Aversive Conditions
  • We prefer to minimize contact with these
    • Electric shock
    • Smelling a skunk (unpleasant odor)
    • Jack hammer’s constant drilling
    • Hot pepper sauce (painful stimuli)
the punishment contingency describes a functional relationship between behavior and the environment
The punishment contingency describes a functional relationshipbetween behavior and the environment.
graph
Graph

Frequency

contingency vs principle
CONTINGENCY

The immediate, response contingent presentation of an aversive condition resulting in a decreased frequency of that response

PRINCIPLE

A response becomes less frequent if an aversive condition or an increase in an aversive condition has immediately followed it in the past.

Contingency vs. Principle
adaptive function of behavior that comes under the control of punishment contingencies
Adaptive function of behavior that comes under the control of punishment contingencies
  • We don’t walk into door frames
  • We tend not to trip over wires
  • We don’t burn ourselves on hot stoves
overcorrection
Overcorrection
  • A contingency on inappropriate behavior requiring the person to engage in an effortful response that more than corrects the effects of the inappropriate behavior.
sick social cycle
Sick Social Cycle
  • The perpetrator’s aversive behavior punishes the victim’s appropriate behavior. And the victim’s stopping the appropriate behavior unintentionally reinforces that aversive behavior
slide17

Before: Teacher asks Jimmy to do a tough task

Behavior: Jimmy disrupts

After: Teacher does not ask Jimmy to do a task

Behavior: Teacher asks Jimmy to do a tough task

After: Jimmy disrupts

Before: Jimmy does not disrupt

Sick Social Cycle – Victim’s Punishment Model

page 72
Page 72
  • Fill this in, study it
chapter 4

Chapter 4

enrichment

punishment contingency1
Punishment Contingency
  • For every punishment contingency, there’s a reinforcement contingency in the background
punishment reinforcement
Punishment & Reinforcement

Reinforcement Contingency

Before:

No food

After:

Food

Behavior:

Lever Press

Before:

No shock

After:

Shock

Punishment Contingency

punishment vs aggression
Punishment vs. Aggression
  • Don’t use punishment in wrath
  • Don’t confuse punishment with divine retribution
  • Forget the eye-for-an-eye notion.
if you use punishment
If you use punishment
  • Remember:
    • Make it as short as possible
    • All you want is to change behavior, not have people atone for their sins.
independent variable
Independent Variable
  • The variable the experimenter systematically manipulates
  • The INTERVENTION
dependent variable
Dependent Variable
  • A measure of the subject’s behavior
graphs
graphs
  • Value of visual inspection of the data
multiple bsln design
Multiple BSLN Design
  • An experimental design in which the replications involve baselines of differing durations and interventions of differing starting times
slide29

BSLN INTERVENTION

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Sessions

doing science
Doing Science
  • Good experimental questions
  • Good design
  • Complete descriptions of procedures
  • Data collection that is accurate & complete
informed consent
Informed consent
  • Consent to intervene in a way that is experimental and/or risky
  • The participant or guardian is informed of the risks and benefits and of the right to stop the intervention.
social validity
Social Validity
  • The goals, procedures, and results of an intervention are socially acceptable to the client, the behavior analyst, and society.