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Essential Computer Concepts

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  1. Essential Computer Concepts Essential Computer Concepts

  2. The components of a computer system The different types of computers Personal computer hardware and its functions Peripheral devices Hardware and software used to establish a network connection Internet, e-mail, and World Wide Web System software Popular application software Data sharing among different application software Course ObjectivesAt the end of the course, you will understand: Essential Computer Concepts

  3. What is a Computer? A computer is a device that : • Accepts input • Processes data • Stores data • Produces output • A computer executes machine instructions. Essential Computer Concepts

  4. How a Computer Works The data you type into the computer is called input. The result of the computer processing your input is called output. Essential Computer Concepts

  5. What is a Computer? A Computer System is made up of: • Hardware—the physical components (physical body of a human being) • Software—the programs or lists of instructions (mind, thought of a human being, issuing instructions to control the hardware to work properly) • Peripherals (optional, not the core)—the additional components Essential Computer Concepts

  6. How a Computer Works The hardware, software, and you work together to complete tasks. Essential Computer Concepts

  7. What is a Computer? Architecture or configuration is the design of the computer. As in, what does the computer consist of? Specification is the technical detail about each component. As in, how big is the monitor? Essential Computer Concepts

  8. Types of Computers The categories of computers are: • Personal or microcomputers • Desktop • Notebook, Laptop, Table PC • Hand-help or PDAs • Mainframes • Supercomputers Essential Computer Concepts

  9. Types of Computers Personal computers are used for general computing tasks and fit the needs of most users Essential Computer Concepts

  10. Types of Computers Hand-held computers fit in the palm of your hand and run on batteries. Essential Computer Concepts

  11. Types of Computers Mainframes are used by companies to provide centralized storage, processing, and management for large amounts of data. Essential Computer Concepts

  12. Types of Computers Supercomputers are the largest and fastest of computers, and can process an enormous volume of data. Essential Computer Concepts

  13. Computer Hardware Computer hardware includes: • CPU (processor, microprocessor) • Memory • Storage devices and media • Input devices • Output devices • Communication devices Essential Computer Concepts

  14. Processing Hardware • The two most important components of personal computers hardware are CPU (the microprocessor) and memory. (Together they can be compared to the brain of a human being.) • These two factors directly affect the computer’s price and performance. Essential Computer Concepts

  15. The Microprocessor • The microprocessor is a silicon chip designed to manipulate data. • Its speed is determined by: • Clock speed • Word size • Cache size Essential Computer Concepts

  16. Computer Hardware • The most important computer function is data processing. • Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the processing hardware responsible for executing instructions to process data. Essential Computer Concepts

  17. Memory Computer memory is a set of storage locations on the motherboard. There are four types of memory: • Random access memory (RAM) • Virtual memory • Read-only memory • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS) Essential Computer Concepts

  18. Memory RAM is temporary memory that is constantly changing while the computer is on. Virtual memory is extra memory that simulates RAM if more is needed. Essential Computer Concepts

  19. Memory Read-only memory (ROM) is the permanent storage location for a set of instructions the computer uses. CMOS memory is semi-permanent information about where essential software is stored. Essential Computer Concepts

  20. Processing Hardware • Computers interpret every signal as “on” or “off.” • 1 (“on”) and 0 (“off”) are referred to as bits. • Eight bits is a byte. Each byte represents a unique character. For example ‘A’ usually consumes 1 byte. Essential Computer Concepts

  21. Data Representation Storage and memory capacity is the amount of data the storage device can handle. • Kilobyte (KB) is about one thousand bytes • Megabyte (MB) is about one million bytes • Gigabyte (GB) is about one billion bytes Essential Computer Concepts

  22. Storage Devices A storage device receives data from RAM and writes it on a storage medium. Later, it can be read and sent back to RAM. Essential Computer Concepts

  23. Storage Devices Data is stored as files. Executable files tell computers how to perform specific tasks. Data files are created by the user, usually with software. Essential Computer Concepts

  24. Storage Devices Files are kept on storage devices. There are: Magnetic storage devices and Optical storage devices. Essential Computer Concepts

  25. Storage Devices Some common magnetic storage devices are: • Floppy disks • Hard disk drives • Tape drives • Zip drives A floppy disk Essential Computer Concepts

  26. Storage Devices Some common optical storage devices are: • CD-ROM drives • DVD drives • CD-R drives • CD-RW drives Essential Computer Concepts

  27. Storage Devices CD-ROMs are for “read-only” access. CD-Rdrives allow you to record data on a CD-R disk. CD-RW drives allow you to write data on a CD-RW disk and access and modify data. Essential Computer Concepts

  28. Computer Hardware Some input devices are: • Keyboard • Mouse • Wireless pointer • Touch pad • Track point Cordless mouse Essential Computer Concepts

  29. Computer Hardware Output devices are: Monitors and Printers are common output devices. CRT monitors and LCD (or flat panel display) monitors are two types of monitors. Essential Computer Concepts

  30. Computer Hardware Factors that influence a monitor’s quality are: • Screen Size • Resolution • Dot Pitch Essential Computer Concepts

  31. Types of Printers include: • Laser • Ink-jet • Dot Matrix Essential Computer Concepts

  32. Other media devices • Media devices are generally related to storage, input and output functionalities. • Multimedia devices are peripheral devices that include text, graphics, sound, animation, and video. • Speakers and sound cards are common multimedia output devices Essential Computer Concepts

  33. Data Communications Data Communications is the transmission of text, numeric, voice, or video data from one computer to another. Essential Computer Concepts

  34. Data Bus The data bus is the communication between microprocessor, RAM, and the peripherals. Essential Computer Concepts

  35. Data Bus Computer expansion ports Essential Computer Concepts

  36. Data Bus USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports replace numerous connectors with one plug and port combination. The device you install must have a USB connector. Essential Computer Concepts

  37. Networks A network connects one computer to other computers and peripherals. In a local area network (LAN), computers and peripherals are close to each other. Essential Computer Concepts

  38. Networks A client/server network is a network with a file server. A file server acts as the central storage location. A network without a file server is a peer-to-peer network. All of the computers are equal. Essential Computer Concepts

  39. Networks Essential Computer Concepts

  40. Networks Each computer that is part of the network must have a network interface card and network software. Then it becomes a workstation. Any device connected to the network is called a node. Essential Computer Concepts

  41. Telecommunications Telecommunications is communicating over a telephone. In the telecommunications process, the modem converts digital signals to analog signals at the sending site and a second modem converts them back at the receiving site. For example, if you dialup to the Internet from your home, it is a kind of telecommuncation. Essential Computer Concepts

  42. Telecommunications Essential Computer Concepts

  43. The Internet The Internet is the world’s largest network. E-mail and the World Wide Web are two benefits of the Internet. Essential Computer Concepts

  44. The Internet A hyperlink is a place on a Web page allowing you to connect to a particular file. Essential Computer Concepts

  45. The Internet A Web browser is the communications software that allows you to navigate the WWW. Essential Computer Concepts

  46. Computer Software Software is the instructions and data that direct the computer to accomplish the task. It can refer to a single program or a package. Essential Computer Concepts

  47. Software Software bridges the human beings’ world and machines’ world. Two levels • Operating system software • Application software Essential Computer Concepts

  48. System Software System software helps the computer carry out it s basic operating tasks. Application software helps the user carry out a variety of tasks. Essential Computer Concepts

  49. System Software The operating system controls the I/O or input/output, the flow of data from microprocessor to memory to peripherals. The operating system makes multitasking possible. Essential Computer Concepts

  50. If you have a computer, then you must have heard of operating systems, since you are actually interacting with them everyday. Essential Computer Concepts