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Essential Computing Concepts. Memory. Input. Central processing unit (CPU). Output. Auxiliary Storage. Auxiliary Storage. Auxiliary Storage. Any Computer System. The PC Today. Inside the PC. A bit or binary digit has one of two values, zero or one

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any computer system



Central processing unit



Auxiliary Storage





Any Computer System
inside the pc
Inside the PC
  • A bit or binary digit has one of two values, zero or one
  • A byte is the smallest addressable unit of memory (8 bits)
  • ASCII provides for 256(or 28) characters
    • 01000001 – A
    • 01000010 – B
    • etc.



the microprocessor
The Microprocessor
  • Intel trademarked its chip as the Pentium
    • Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV
    • Clock speed (MHz or GHz) differentiates chips
  • The central processing unit (cpu) or “brain” of the PC
  • Transient (erased when power turned off)
    • Consider a UPS (uninterrupted power supply)
  • Measured in bytes
    • 1 Kilobyte = 210 characters (~1,000 bytes)
    • 1 Megabyte = 220 characters (~1,000,000 bytes)
    • 1 Gigabyte = 230 characters (~1,000,000,000 bytes)
  • Need 256Mb or 512Mb of RAM
    • Keep multiple programs & data files in memory
    • Graphic-intensive programs demand a lot of memory
  • The Original PC had 16Kb of memory
auxiliary storage
Auxiliary Storage
  • Floppy Disk
    • No longer standard
  • Hard (fixed) disk
    • 30 Gb and higher
  • Removable storage
    • CD-ROM
    • CD-R/CD-RW
    • Zip disks
    • Tape
the monitor
The Monitor
  • Resolution is expressed in picture elements or pixels; (800 x 600 or 1024 x 768)
  • The higher the resolution, the more you can see at one time.
  • Larger monitors enable you to you run at higher resolutions; e.g., 19” to run 1024 x 768 comfortably
  • A graphics card speeds processing
lower resolution 800 x 600
Lower Resolution (800 x 600)

Displays 20 rows and 8 columns

higher resolution 1024 x 768
Higher Resolution (1024 x 768)

Displays 28 rows and 12 columns

the printer
The Printer
  • Ink Jet
    • Today’s entry level
  • Laser
    • Top-of-the line
  • Four-in-one functionality
    • Printer, scanner, fax, copier
  • Network printer
  • System Software – Microsoft Windows
    • Windows XP Home Edition
    • Windows XP Professional Edition
    • What Windows does not have - File Compression, Antivirus, Graphical FTP
  • Application Software – Microsoft Office
    • Core applications – Word, Excel, Access, and PowerPoint
    • Personal Information Manager – Outlook
    • Other applications – FrontPage and Publisher
    • New to Office 2003 - OneNote and InfoPath
disk and file management
Disk and File Management
  • A file is a set of instructions or data
    • Program file: Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel
    • Data File: Document or workbook
  • Copy, move, rename or delete a file
  • A folder allows us to organize our files
    • May contain files and/or other folders
  • A back up strategy is critical
    • What (data), When (whenever it changes), Where (off site), How (Windows Explorer), and Who (you)
windows explorer
Windows Explorer

- Sign indicate object is expanded

Milestones in Communication is selected file

Homework is the active folder

maintaining your system
Maintaining Your System

Windows update takes place automatically

Double click to install a printer

Double click to add new user

antivirus software
Antivirus Software
  • A computer virus is an actively infectious program that can erase data and/or alter the way your computer works
  • Worms and Trojan horses are other types of infectious programs, but all are bad
  • Computer viruses are spread through email, and/or infected floppy disks
  • Windows does not include an antivirus program; i.e., you must buy it separately and update it frequently
file transfer protocol
File Transfer Protocol

Graphical FTP is not part of Windows

Where you will FTP the file

Click to upload

Selected file to FTP

file compression
File Compression
  • Create a self-extracting file from the archive that does not require supporting software
  • Use WinZip (or compatible) program to create a compressed file or archive
introduction to networks
Introduction to Networks
  • Most people work in a network environment
    • Home network
    • Local Area Network (LAN)
    • Wide Area Network (WAN)
  • The physical structure includes: interface cards, cables, hubs, switches, and routers
  • Protect your password!
from lan to wan
From LAN to WAN

(a) Home Network

(b) Local Area Network

from lan to wan continued
From LAN to WAN (continued)

(c) Wide Area Network

the internet and world wide web
The Internet

Network of networks

Began in 1969 as a government project

Original network had 4 computers;

No central authority and thus impossible to know the exact size

The World Wide Web

A subset of the Internet consisting of computers that store hypertext documents

Invented by Tim Berners Lee who wanted to share notes with colleagues at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland

The Internet and World Wide Web
a message travels the internet
A message travels the Internet

All that matters is the beginning and ending address

acronyms abound
Acronyms Abound
  • HTTP – HyperText Transfer Protocol is used to transmit Web documents
  • HTTPS – Secure protocol for confidential transactions
  • HTML – The language in which all Web documents are displayed
  • TCP/IP – A suite of protocols that allows multiple platforms to communicate
  • ISP – Internet Service Provider
the exploring office web site
The Exploring Office Web Site

Internet Explorer is the browser

Web address (or URL)

HTTP protocol

e mail electronic mail
E-Mail (Electronic Mail)
  • E-mail is simply a means of sending messages via computer
  • There should be no expectation of privacy
  • Every e-mail address is unique and consists of two parts, a username and a host computer; e.g.
  • You can obtain an account at school, pay for an account through an ISP such as AOL, or get free email accounts at sites like or
the mail folders
The Mail Folders
  • Inbox – new messages as well as messages that have been read
  • Outbox – messages not yet sent
  • Sent items – messages that have been sent (moved here from outbox)
  • Deleted items – messages deleted from any folder
  • Custom folders – additional folders created by the user
additional e mail capabilities
Additional E-mail Capabilities
  • Address Book
    • Contains the e-mail addresses of frequent contacts
    • Enables you to enter an alias (e.g., “Bob” instead of the complete address)
  • Distribution List
    • A set of e-mail addresses stored under one name
    • Ideal for your professor to e-mail the class
parts of the e mail message
Parts of the E-mail Message




Message text