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Essential Computer Concepts What Is a Computer? A computer is an electronic device that accepts data and instructions from a user, manipulates the data according to the instructions, displays the information in some way, and stores the information for retrieval later What is a computer?

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What Is a Computer?

  • A computer is an electronic device that accepts data and instructions from a user, manipulates the data according to the instructions, displays the information in some way, and stores the information for retrieval later

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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What is a computer?

  • An electronic device that accepts input, processes the data and instructions, produces output from the processing that is useful and meaningful and stores the results for future use.

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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How Does A Computer Know What To Do?

  • It must be given a detailed set of instructions that tell it exactly what to do.

  • These instructions are called a computer program, or software.

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Types of Computers

  • Personal computers (PCs)

    • Desktop computers

    • Notebook (laptop) computers

    • Tablet PCs

  • Handheld computers

    • PDA (personal digital assistant)

    • MP3 players

    • Cell phones

  • Mainframe computers

  • Supercomputers

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Types of Computers

Personal Computers

PDA

Notebook

Desktop

Tablet PC

Super Computers

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Computer Systems

  • Includes computer hardware and software

    • Hardware refers to the physical components of a computer

    • Software refers to the intangible components of a computer system, particularly the programs the computer needs to perform a specific task

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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System Software

  • System software manages the fundamental operations of your computer

    • Operating system

      • System resource

      • Multitasking

    • Utilities

    • Programming Languages

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Application Software

  • Application software enables you to perform specific computer tasks, such as document production, spreadsheet calculations, and database management

    • Document production software

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Application Software

  • Presentation software

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Application Software

  • Web site creation and management software

  • Spreadsheet software

  • Database management software

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Application Software

  • Photo editing software

  • Multimedia authoring software

  • Accounting software

  • Information management software

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Architecture or configuration is the design of the computer.

As in, what does the computer consist of?

Specification is the technical detail about each component.

As in, how big is the monitor?

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Processing Hardware

  • The motherboard is the main electronic component of the computer

  • The microprocessor is one of the most important pieces of processing hardware on the motherboard

  • Cards are removable circuit boards

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Processing

Microprocessor, also referred to as processor or CPU (Central Processing Unit

RAM - Random Access Memory

  • Volatile

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Input and Output

  • The data or instructions you type into the computer are called input

  • The result of the computer processing your input is referred to as output and also referred to as information.

  • Peripheral devices accomplish input and output functions

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Input Devices

  • You use an input device, such as a keyboard or a mouse, to input data and issue commands

    • Keyboard

    • Pointing device

      • Controls the pointer

      • Mouse

      • Trackball

      • Touch pad

      • Pointing stick

    • Scanner

    • Touch Screen

    • Pen Input

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Output Devices

  • Output devices show you the results of processing data

    • Monitor

      • Flat panel

      • LCD

      • CRT

    • Printer

      • Laser

      • Inkjet

      • Dot matrix

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Data Representation

  • Binary digits (bits)

  • A series of eight bits is called a byte

  • ASCII

    • American Standard Code for Information Interchange

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Storage Measurements

  • Byte = one character

  • Kilobyte = approximately 1000 characters

  • Megabyte = approximately one million characters

  • Gigabyte = approximately one billion characters

  • Terabyte = approximately one trillion characters

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Memory

  • Random access memory (RAM)

    • Volatile memory

    • SDRAM

  • Cache memory (RAM cache or CPU cache)

  • Virtual memory

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Memory

  • Read-only memory (ROM)

    • BIOS

    • Nonvolatile memory

  • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS)

  • Semi permanent memory

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Method of Access

  • Sequential access – retrieve data in order.

    • Example of media- magnetic tape

  • Direct or random access – go directly to required data.

    • Example of media- magnetic disk, CD-Rom, DVD

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Storage Media

  • A computer file is a named collection of stored data

  • An executable file contains the instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task

  • A data file is created by a user

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Storage Media

  • Magnetic media

    • Hard disk

    • Tape

    • Floppy disk

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Hard Drive

  • Consists of one or more rigid metal platters coated with a metal oxide material that allows data to be magnetically recorded on the surface of the platters

  • The number of platters permanently mounted on the spindle of a hard disk varies.

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Storage Media

  • Optical storage device

    • CD

    • DVD

    • CD-R

    • CD-RW

    • CD-ROM

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Storage Media

  • Flash memory

    • Flash memory cards

    • USB flash storage device

    • USB drive (flash drive)

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Data Communications

  • The transmission of text, numeric, voice, or video data from one computer to another or to a peripheral device is called data communications

    • Sender and receiver

    • Channel

    • Protocol

    • Device driver (driver)

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Components of Data Communications

The four essential components of data communications are:

  • Sender

  • Channel

  • Receiver

  • Protocols

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Data Communication

A sender is the computer that originates the message.

The message is sent over a channel, such as a telephone

The receiver is the computer at the message’s destination.

Protocols are the rules that establish the transfer of data between sender and receiver.

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Networks

A network connects one computer to other computers and peripherals.

In a local area network (LAN), computers and peripherals are close to each other.

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Networks

Each computer that is part of the network must have a network interface card and network software.

Then it becomes a workstation.

Any device connected to the network is called a node.

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Telecommunications

Telecommunications is communicating over a telephone. In the telecommunications process, the modem converts digital signals to analog signals at the sending site and a second modem converts them back at the receiving site.

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Telecommunications

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The Internet

The Internet is the world’s largest network.

E-mail and the World Wide Web are two benefits of the Internet.

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The Internet

A hyperlink is a place on a Web page allowing you to connect to a particular file.

http://www.course.com/newperspectives

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The Internet

  • A Web browser is

  • the communications software that allows you to navigate the WWW.

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New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Networks

  • A network connects one computer to other computers and peripheral devices, enabling you to share data and resources with others

  • Network interface card (NIC)

  • LAN

  • WAN

  • WLAN

  • PAN

  • WiMax

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Telecommunications

  • Telecommunications means communicating over a comparatively long distance using a phone line or some other data conduit

    • Modem

      • Digital and analog signals

    • DSL

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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The Internet

  • The Internet is the largest network in the world, connecting millions of people

    • Electronic mail

    • World Wide Web

      • Web page

      • Web site

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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Security Threats on Your Computer

  • Security refers to the steps a computer owner takes to prevent unauthorized use of or damage to the computer

    • Malware

      • Viruses

        • Antivirus software

      • Spyware

      • Adware

  • Firewall

  • Phishing

  • Pharming

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition


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