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Kingdom Animalia – Nematoda. Phylum nematoda – round worms (~50,000 species, or more?); general characteristics:. Very, very, very, very, very, very, common!!!. One study found 90,000 nematordes in a single rotting apple. Maybe we’ll check this one out for ourselves in next weeks lab !!.

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Kingdom Animalia – Nematoda

Phylum nematoda – round worms (~50,000 species, or more?); general characteristics:

Very, very, very, very, very, very, common!!!

One study found 90,000 nematordes in a single rotting apple.

Maybe we’ll check this one out for ourselves in next weeks lab !!

Another study found 236 different species in about 6.7 cc of coastal mud!!

Triploblastic, bilateral, vermiform, un-segmented, pseudocoelomates

Body round in cross section and covered by a layered cuticle; growth in juveniles

usually accompanied by molting

Have complete gut

Have no specialized circulatory or gas exchange structures, and only longitudinal

muscles. Why do you think they need a substrate to live in?

Can be free-living or parasitic

slide2

Kingdom Animalia – Nematoda

Parasitic example: Heart worms… cool eh?

slide3

Kingdom Animalia – Nematoda

Whereas cnidarians and platyhelminthes did not have a body cavity (coelom),

nematodes do. It is however a pseudocoelom. All the other animals that we discuss

from now on will have true coelom (including us!). What is the advantage of

having a coelom?

* Note that in this picture, blue represents ectoderm, yellow represents endoderm, and red

represents mesoderm. Green is the mesoglea which is not a true tissue…

slide4

Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Annelida

Phylum Annelida – segmented worms (~12,000 species) - general characteristics:

Bilaterally symmetrical, segmented worms with a true coelom

Digestive tract complete, usually with regional specializaiton

Closed circulatory system

Nervous system well developed

Marine, terrestrial, and freshwater species exist

Include earthworms, marine polychaetes, and leaches

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Kingdom Animalia

Evolution of the coelom (body cavity):

slide6

Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Annelida

Generally speaking, annelids are a very

diverse group, particularly the marine

polychaetes which may have highly

developed appendages.

kingdom animalia annelid classification
Kingdom Animalia – Annelid Classification

Class Polychaeta – include most of the marine and freshwater annelids… these

worms are often very well developed, having specialized

appendages for feeding and/or swimming called setae or

parapodia…

kingdom animalia annelid classification8
Kingdom Animalia – Annelid Classification

Class Oligochaeta – earthworms and other similar freshwater annelids.

have no setae or parapodia…

kingdom animalia annelid classification9
Kingdom Animalia – Annelid Classification

Class Hirudinida – leeches… complex reproductive systems, hermaphroditic, most

most are freshwater or marine (a few are semi-terrestrial).

Ectoparasitic, they can be predaceous or scavenging…

These animals have specialized suckers

to help them attach to their “prey”…

They also produce anesthetics and

anticoagulation chemicals… Why do you

think this is?

slide10

Time for a cool animal!! – Phylum Tardigrada

Phylum Trdigrada (water bears)

~ 400 – 500 species

Free living or symbiotic, they are

found all over…

Tardigrades are known for their

Anabiosis – state of greatly recuced

metabolic activity during

unfavorable conditions; and

Cryptobiosis – an extreme state of

anabiosis or dormancy where

all external sings of metabolic

activity are missing!!

How tough are they?

check it out…

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Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Tardigrada

Tartigrades have recovered from immersion in extremely toxic compounds such as

brine, ether, absolute alcohol, and even liquid helium!!

They have survived temperature ranging from +149 C to –272 C (almost at absolute zero!!)

They have also survived high vacuums, intense ionizing radiation, and long periods with no

environmental oxygen.

Former Soviet zoologists claim that tardigrades survived experiments in outer space!!

In one case, a 120 year old dried moss specimen from a museum was accidentally moistened,

yielding living tardigrades!!! ….. You get the picture….

kingdom animalia phylum mullusca
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Mullusca

Phylum Mullusca – snails, slugs, clams, oysters, squids, octopus, etc. (> 50,000 species – maybe up to 100,000??)

General characteristics:

Bilaterally symmetrical (or secondarily asymmetrical), coelomate

Well developed organ systems

Have mantle with shell glands that secrete calcareous epidermal spicules,

shell plates, or shells

Have large, well defined muscular foot, often with a flattened creeping sole,

(in squids and octopus, the foot is modified into tentacles / arms.

kingdom animalia phylum mullusca13
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Mullusca

Generalized mulluscan body:

kingdom animalia mullusc diversity
Kingdom Animalia –Mullusc Diversity

Class Gastropoda – slugs, snails, and nudibranchs

Not all gastropods have shell (blue). There is a high level of variation amongst different

shells; why do you think this is? How do you think nudibranchs that do not have any

Shells defend themselves?

Most gastropods have a large, fleshy foot which is used for locomoation (green)

Most gastropods have a unique file-like mouth part called the radula (orange).

Herbivorous forms use it for grazing, carnivorous forms have modified it into a drill, or

a harpoon that can inject toxins into their prey.

Most gastropods have gills for gas exchange.

kingdom animalia mullusc diversity gastropods
Kingdom Animalia –Mullusc Diversity - Gastropods

Snail:

What do you think is the function

of this shell?

Nudibranch:

How do you think this animal

defends itself?

kingdom animalia mullusc diversity class polyplacophora chitons
Kingdom Animalia –Mullusc DiversityClass Polyplacophora - chitons

Chitons also have a large foot (green) that

is used for locomotion and clamping down

on rocks; gills (yellow) for gas exchange;

a shell made up of 7 or 8 individual plates

(blue); and a radula (orange) specialized

for grazing on algae and some encrusting

invertebrates.

What do you think is the advantage

of having multiple (7 or 8) shell plates?

kingdom animalia mullusc diversity class bivlavia
Kingdom Animalia –Mullusc DiversityClass Bivlavia

Bivalves have two shells, hinged along

One edge, with the animal in between (blue).

Most bivalves use their gills (yellow) for both

gas exchange, as well as for food capture. How

do you think this may work?

The foot (green) of some bivalves is reduced,

While in others, it is specialized for digging.

Here is a picture of a clam.

Bivalves also include mussels, oysters,

and scallops.

kingdom animalia mullusc diversity class cephalopoda
Kingdom Animalia –Mullusc DiversityClass Cephalopoda

Cephalopods – octopus, squids, nautilus, and cuttlefish

Cephalopods have generally modified their

foot (green) into tentacles (arms) that allow them

to manipulate potential prey items, as well as to

move around their environments

Their shells (blue) can be complete and external

(nautilus), reduced and internal (squid), or completely

non-existent (octopus). What is the advantage of each?

Most cephalopods use gills (yellow) for gas exchange,

and have a specialized beak (orange) for tearing

food particles.

Finally, most cephalopods use jet propulsion

for movement and swimming… and… they

seem to be very good at “solving problems”…