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Kingdom Animalia. Phylum Chordata “Vertebrates”. Organisms in this phylum are segmented animals with four distinctive features Dorsal hollow nerve cord Stiff notochord Pharyngeal slits behind the mouth Muscular post-anal tail Coelom Bilateral symmetry. Phylum Chordata “Vertebrates.

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kingdom animalia

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Chordata

“Vertebrates”

phylum chordata vertebrates

Organisms in this phylum are segmented animals with four distinctive features

    • Dorsal hollow nerve cord
    • Stiff notochord
    • Pharyngeal slits behind the mouth
    • Muscular post-anal tail
    • Coelom
    • Bilateral symmetry
Phylum Chordata“Vertebrates
simplest chordates

The simplest chordates are tunicates and lancelets.

    • These are marine invertebrates

POST-ANAL TAIL

DORSAL, HOLLOWNERVE CORD

Tunicates

PHARYNGEALSLITS

Musclesegments

Mouth

NOTOCHORD

Simplest Chordates

LARVA

simplest chordates1

Lancelets

DORSAL, HOLLOWNERVE CORD

NOTOCHORD

Head

Mouth

Water exit

Simplest Chordates

Anus

Pharynx

POST-ANALTAIL

PHARYNGEALSLITS

Digestivetract

Segmentalmuscles

vertebrates a skull and a backbone are hallmarks of vertebrates

Most chordates are vertebrates.

    • Their endoskeletons include a skull.
    • Their backbone is composed of vertebrae.

Vertebrae

Backbone

Skull

VertebratesA skull and a backbone are hallmarks of vertebrates
vertebrates most vertebrates have hinged jaws

Exception: Lampreys lack hinged jaws.

    • They are classified as agnathans.
  • Jaws evolved by the modification of skeletal supports of the gill slits.

Gillslits

Skeletalrods

Skull

VertebratesMost vertebrates have hinged jaws.

Mouth

class chondrichthyes cartilaginous fish

Fish are jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins.

  • Cartilaginous fish diverged before bony skeletons appeared.
  • Examples: Shark and ray
Class ChondrichthyesCartilaginous Fish
class osteichthyes bony fish

Bony fishes are more diverse and have

    • more mobile fins
    • operculi that move water over the gills
    • a buoyant swim bladder

BONY SKELETON

OPERCULUM

Class OsteichthyesBony fish

Gills

SWIM BLADDER

class osteichthyes

Three sub-classes of bony fish:

    • Ray-finned
    • Lobe-finned
    • Lungfish
  • Evolutionary evidence suggests that tetrapods evolved from lobe-finned fish.

Rainbow trout,a ray-fin

Coelacanth,a lobe-fin

Class Osteichthyes
slide10

Air-breathing lungfishes that developed skeleton-reinforced appendages probably gave rise to the first amphibians.

Bonessupporting gills

Typical tetrapod limb skeleton

class amphibia 1 st land vertebrates

Class Amphibia is represented today by:

    • frogs
    • toads
    • Salamanders
  • Their limbs allow them to move on land.
  • However, amphibian larvae must develop in water.
Class Amphibia1st Land Vertebrates
class amphibia

Key Characteristics:

    • Body Temperature: Ectotherms – obtain their body heat from the external environment
    • Reproduction: Females lay eggs in water, and males fertilize. Eggs do not have shells or outer coverings.
  • Examples:
    • Frogs and toads
    • Salamanders and newts
    • Caecilians (worm-like animal burrows in soil)
Class Amphibia
class reptilia 1 st amniotic egg

Reptiles have more terrestrial adaptations than amphibians.

  • Class Reptilia is able to live on land due to:
    • waterproof scales
    • a shelled, amniotic egg
  • Modern reptiles are still ectotherms.
    • They warm their bodies by absorbing heat from the environment.
Class Reptilia1st amniotic egg
class aves 1 st endotherms

Class Aves has:

    • scales
    • amniotic eggs
    • Wings
    • Feathers
    • an endothermic metabolism
    • hollow bones
    • a highly efficient circulatory system

Wing claw(like reptile)

Teeth(like reptile)

Class Aves1st Endotherms

Feathers

Long tail withmany vertebrae(like reptile)

class aves

Birds share many characteristics in common with reptiles.

  • Scientists believe that birds’ feathers are evolved scales.
  • Consider the scaly skin of birds’ feet.
Class Aves
class mammalia

Mammals also evolved from reptiles.

  • Mammals are endothermic.
  • There are two unique mammalian characteristics:
    • Hair, which insulates the body
    • Mammary glands, which produce milk that nourishes their young.
Class Mammalia
class mammalia marsupials

Marsupials have a short gestation.

    • The tiny offspring complete development attached to the mother’s nipple, usually inside a pouch.
    • Example: kangaroos
Class MammaliaMarsupials
class mammalia placental mammals

Most mammals are eutherians, also called placentals,

    • They have a relatively long gestation.
    • Complete embryonic development occurs within the mother.
Class MammaliaPlacental Mammals
slide21

Presentday

Porifera

Platyhelminthes

Mollusca

Arthropoda

Chordata

Cnidaria

Nematoda

Annelida

Echinodermata

Pseudocoelom

PROTOSTOMESCoelom fromcell masses

DEUTEROSTOMESCoelom fromdigestive tube

No body cavity

True coelom

Body cavity

Radialsymmetry

Bilateralsymmetry

No true tissues

True tissues

Ancestral protists