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KINGDOM ANIMALIA

KINGDOM ANIMALIA

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KINGDOM ANIMALIA

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  1. KINGDOM ANIMALIA Fun stuff!!

  2. SEPARABLE CHARACTERISTICS • No cell wall • Sexual reproduction is the norm • Dominant life cycle stage is diploid • Most animals are motile • Most have muscle & nervous tissue • Multicellular heterotrophs • Animals store glucose as glycogen • Plants store glucose as starch

  3. DEFINITIONS • Zygote – Fertilized Egg • Cleavages – mitotic cell divisions w/o cell growth between cycles • Blastula – A hollow ball of cells surrounding a cavity called the blastocoel • Gastrula – form that begins to feature embryonic tissue layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) • Ectoderm – Outer tissue layer • Endoderm – Inner tissue layer • Blastophore – opening into the gastrula • Archenteron – pouch formed by gastrulation

  4. ANIMALS CHARACTERIZED BY… • Body Plan or symmetry • No symmetry – sponges • Radial symmetry – any cut through central axis = mirror images • Example: Cnidarians • Bilateral symmetry – Right & left sides • Most Chordates, molluscs, arthropods, annelids, & nematodes • Dorsal (back) & Ventral (front) • Anterior (head) & posterior (tail)

  5. ANIMALS CHARACTERIZED BY… • Body Cavity • Acoelomates – No cavity between their alimentary canal and the outer wall of their bodies -- Playthelminths • Pseudocoelomates – cavity formed from mesoderm and endoderm -- Nematoda • Coelomates – -- Mollusca, annelida, arthropoda, echinodermata, & chrodata

  6. EVOLUTIONARY PROGRESSION Bilateria Eumetazoa Choanoflagellates Parazoa Radiata

  7. EVOLUTIONARY PROGRESSION CONTINED(NOTE: THIS SLIDE STARTS @ BILATERIA) Protosomes Body Cavity Bilateria Coelomates Deuterosomes Acoelomates Pseudocoelomates

  8. EVOLUTIONARY LINKAGE • Choanoflagellates • 4 major branching points from choanoflagellates • Following multicellularity came the first branch point into Parazoa (Protista) and Eumetazoa • Eumetazoa branches due to body symmetry • Radiata – radial symmetry, single orientation -- Jellyfish, corals, and hydras • Bilateria – Bilateral symmetry, top/bottom (dorsal/ventral) and head / tail (anterior/posterior) • Bilateria branch due to vascularity & body cavity • Acoeleomates – No blood vascular system, and no coelem -- Coelom is a fluid-filled body cavity • Those with a fluid-filled body cavity

  9. EVOLUTIONARY LINKAGES • Those with a fluid filled body cavity can be separated into: • Pseudocoelomates • Fluid-filled body cavity not enclosed by mesoderm • Roundworms • Coelomates • Possess coelom that is derived from the mesoderm • Protosomes vs. Deuterosomes • Protosomes – bilaterally symmetric, (first hole) • The first indentation develops into the mouth • Annelids, arthropods, & mollusks

  10. DEUTEROSOMES • First indentation develops into the anus • Second indentation develops into the mouth • Chordates & echinoderms • The difference between Protosomes & Deuterosomes is in embryonic development • Protosomes – first embryonic indent develops into the mouth • Deuterosomes – the first embryonic indent takes an ugly turn – it develops into the anus, not the mouth

  11. ANIMALIA : 9 MAIN PHYLA • Porifera • Cnidaria • Platyhelminths • Nematoda • Annelida • Mollusca • Arthropoda • Echinodermata • Chordata

  12. 3 GERM OR CELL LAYERS • Ectoderm – outer layer cover • Mesoderm – Muscle & organ layer • Endoderm – Digestive tract

  13. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN ANIMALIA

  14. PHYLUM PORIFERA • Sponges • Simple creatures • Marine & fresh water • No true tissues, so no organs • No specialized cellular function • Most are Hermaphroditic - perform female & male functions • Can reproduce sexually or asexually • Sessile – do not move • Suspension feeders • If you cut a sponge, it will spontaneously reaggregate back into a sponges

  15. ARE YOU SPONGEWORTHY?

  16. PORIFERA PHYSIOLOGY • Water flows into the sponge through Porocytes, entering a cavity called Spongocoel • The spongocoel is lined with feeding cells called choanocytes • Choanocytes beat their flagella to create a current that draws water into the porocytes • Ameobocytes – transfer nutrients to other cells of the sponge’s body

  17. CNIDARIA • Eumetazoans • Jellyfish & Corals • Radial Symmetry • Lack Mesoderm • 2 Body arrangements: • Polyp – Asexual, cylinder-shaped, & Attached • Medusa – Sexual, flat, and Roams for food • Use tentacles to capture & eat prey

  18. CNIDARIA

  19. QUESTIONS • Are Cnidarians protosomes or deuterosomes? • How do sponges feed? • What are Choanocytes & what is their function?

  20. PLATYHELMINTHS • Flatworms • Acoelomates • Protosomes • Bilaterally symmetrical • Some Cephalization – Formation of head structure • 3 Important forms • Flukes – Parasitic & alternate between asex & sex reprod. • Planarians – Free-living carnivores in fresh water • Tapeworms – Parasitic flatworms that tend to live in vertebrates, like humans!!

  21. ROTIFERA • Pseudocoelomates • Bilateral Symmetry • Separate mouth & anus • Microscopic • True digestive canal

  22. NEMATODA • Roundworms • Protosomes • Pseudocoelomates • Bilaterally Symmetric • Some cause Trichinosis • GI illness due to tainted pork

  23. MOLLUSCA • Snails, slugs, octopus, & squid • Protosomes • Coelomates – full digestive systems • Soft body with calcium-containing shell • Bilateral symmetry • Bivalves – Clams and Oysters • Have hinged shells that are divided into 2 parts

  24. ANNELIDA • Segmented Worm • Earthworms & Leaches • Protosome, Bilaterally Symmetrical, Coelomates • Digestive tract is tube-within-a-tube • Hermaphroditic • Blood with hemoglobin • Closed circulatory system • Gas diffusion across skin • Nephridia used for excretion – precursor to kidneys

  25. EARTHWORM ANATOMY

  26. ARTHROPODA • Protosome Coelomate • Jointed Appendages • Segmented: head, thorax, & abdomen • Chitinous exoskeleton • May have a larval stage • Open circulatory system • Malphigian tubules – removes nitrogenous waste • Trachea – air ducts, bring air in from the environment • Some have book lungs or gills

  27. ECHINODERMATA • Sea stars • Deuterosome coelomates • Sessile or slow moving • Bilateral symmetry as embryo, but reverts to primitive form of symmetry (radial) as an adult • Water Vascular system • Sexual Reproduction – External fertilization • Asexual Reproduction – fragmentation & regeneration • Calcium based endoskeleton

  28. ECHINODERMATA PHYSIOLOGY

  29. Examples of Echinoderms

  30. CHORDATA • Deuterosome coelomates • Invertebrates & Vertebrates • Vertebrates – possessing backbone • Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord – forms the nervous system & becomes the Brain & spinal cord • Notochord – Long support rod that is replaced by bone in vertebrates • Pharyngeal Gill slits – functions in breathing or feeding • Tail – Lost in many animals by birth

  31. CHORDATES • Can be homeothermic (homo – same) or poikilothermic • Homeothermic – maintains consistent body temperature • Birds & Mammals • Poikilothermic – Cold blooded, attain heat from external environment • Iguanas and cold environment

  32. MAMMALS • Mothers provide milk to their young • Hair or Fur • Composed of Keratin • Homeotherms – Maintain stable internal environment • Can be a placental, marsupial, or monotreme mammal

  33. 3 BASIC CATEGORIES OF MAMMALS 1. Placental Mammals (Eutherians) -- Embryo develops internally in a uterus -- Placenta – Part of uterus that connects embryo to mother, allows nutrients to diffuse from mother, but serve as barrier to protect embryo as well 2. Marsupials -- Born early in embryonic development but completes its development while nursing in the mother’s pouch 3. Monotremes -- Egg-laying mammals -- Derive nutrients from a shelled egg -- Duck-billed platypus

  34. MAMMALS EXAMPLES Karl Rove Kangaroo G. W. Chimp So that’s where Scooter Libby has been hiding

  35. PRIMATA • Descended from insectivores • Dexterous hands & opposable thumbs • Nails – instead of claws • Eyes are front-facing & set close together • Creates overlapping fields of vision • Enhances depth perception and hand-eye coordination • Significant amount of energy devoted to parenting • Single birthing • Nurture young for extended time periods • Gorillas, Chimps, Gibbons, Old-world & New-world monkeys

  36. COMPLETE THE TABLE

  37. COMPLETED TABLE

  38. SUMMARIZE INFO FOR THE KINGDOMS • Focus on Differentiating Characteristics