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IC Temperature Sensors. Jared Bench ECE 5320 Spring 2004. Contents. Introduction Limitations & Advantages Working Principles Sensor Types Interfacing Applications Conclusions. Why IC Temperature Sensors Limitations/Advantages IC Temperature Sensors Explained Types of IC Sensors

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ic temperature sensors

IC Temperature Sensors

Jared Bench

ECE 5320

Spring 2004

contents
Contents

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Why IC Temperature Sensors
  • Limitations/Advantages
  • IC Temperature Sensors Explained
  • Types of IC Sensors
  • Interfacing
  • Applications
  • Conclusions
references
References

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Claire O'Keeffe and Brian Black, “Choosing an IC Temperature Sensor” http://www.electronicproducts.com/
  • “IC Temperature Sensors Find the Hot Spots”, http://www.maxim-ic.com/
  • Jay Scolio, “Temperature Sensor ICsSimplify Designs”, Maxim IntegratedProducts, Inc.
  • MAX675 Data Sheet, Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
  • “National Semiconductor’s Temp Sensor Handbook”, www.national.com/appinfo/tempsensors/files/temphb.pdf
  • “National Semiconductor’s Analog University”, www.national.com/AU/design/1,4678,18_0_,00.html
further reading
Further Reading

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • List of Vendors, http://temperatures.com/semivendors.html
  • “Introduction to Semiconductor Temperature Sensors”, www.capgo.com/Resources/ Temperature/Semiconductor/Semi.html
  • “Sensor Industry Developments and Trends”, Sensor Business Digest, September 2004
  • Tons of Temperature Sensor Information, http://temperature-measurement.globalspec.com/
  • Computer Interfacing Example, http://www.iguanalabs.com/tempture.htm
  • http://www.temperatures.com/forum/
why monitor temperature
Why Monitor Temperature

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Monitoring Temperature is becoming more important as electronic systems become increasingly dense and power-hungry.
  • Systems are affected by temperature extremes
  • Components may be damaged if the temperature falls outside the operating range.
desired sensor characteristics
Desired Sensor Characteristics

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Accuracy
  • Practicality
  • Reliability
  • High Precision
  • Easy to Interface
  • Linearity
  • Wide Range
common temperature sensors
Common Temperature Sensors

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Thermistors
  • Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
  • Infrared (IR)
  • Thermocouples
  • IC Temperature Sensors
ic temp sensors at a glance
IC Temp Sensors at a Glance

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Varied array of functions, features, and interfaces.
  • Capabilities:
    • Report both local and remote temperatures
    • Monitor other system parameters
    • Control fans
    • Warn when a specific temperature is exceeded.
ic temp sensor advantages
IC Temp Sensor Advantages

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Small and simple
  • Accurate
  • Inexpensive
  • No linearization or cold-junction compensation is required.
  • External or internal hot spots can be monitored.
  • Generally provide better noise immunity through higher-level output signals.
  • Easy to interface with other devices such as amplifiers, regulators, DSPs, and micro-controllers.
linearity
Linearity

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • IC Temp Sensors are highly linear.
    • The linearity of thermistors and Si temp sensors is contrasted below.

Image: Maxim Integrated Products

ic temp sensor limitations
IC Temp Sensor Limitations

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • The use of IC temperature sensors is limited to applications where the temperature is within a –55° to 150°C range.
principle of ic temp sensors
Principle of IC Temp Sensors

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Operation of IC temperature sensors is based on the behavior of silicon PN junctions as a function of temperature.
ic temperature sensor theory
IC Temperature Sensor Theory

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • A current is forced through two PN junctions with different active areas. The difference between the forward voltages on the two junctions is proportional to absolute temperature:
  • V1 - V2 = (kT/q) ln(J1/J2)
ic temperature sensor theory14
IC Temperature Sensor Theory

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • V1 - V2 = (kT/q) ln(J1/J2)
  • Thus the difference in forward voltage is directly proportional to absolute temperature
ic temperature sensor theory15
IC Temperature Sensor Theory

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • With accurate forcing of the two current levels, temperature can be calculated from a measured VBE almost without regard to the initial forward voltage, physical size of the junction, leakage, or other junction characteristics.
ic temperature sensor theory16
IC Temperature Sensor Theory

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • The excessive leakage currents characteristic of silicon PN junctions limits the temperature for IC-based sensors to about 200°C.
  • These currents double with every 10°C rise in temperature, causing malfunctions in bandgap references and signal-conditioning circuitry.
types of ic temp sensors
Types of IC Temp Sensors

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Classified according to the input source and output-signaling method.
  • Two main types of IC temperature sensors:
    • Analog
      • Produce a voltage or current proportional to temperature
    • Digital
      • Include an integrated A/D converter
      • Can include other features such as voltage monitoring, fan control, and over or under limit alarms.
representative temperature sensors
Representative Temperature Sensors

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

analog sensors
Analog Sensors

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • An ideal analog sensor provides an output voltage that is a perfectly linear function of temperature

Images: Maxim Integrated Products

analog plus sensors
Analog Plus Sensors

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • "Analog Plus" sensors are available with various types of digital outputs.
  • The "plus" added to the analog temperature sensor can be a comparator such that logic output trips when temperature passes a preset threshold.
  • Other types of "plus" sensor relay temperature data in the form of the delay time after the part has been strobed, or in the form of the frequency or the period of a square wave.
digital i o sensors
Digital I/O Sensors

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Digital temperature data is passed to the microcontroller, usually via a serial bus.
  • Data is sent to the temperature sensor from the microcontroller along the same bus, usually to set the temperature limit at which the alert pin's digital output will trip.
  • An interrupt is sent to the microcontroller when the temperature limit has been exceeded.
  • May also provide fan control.
system monitor sensors
System Monitor Sensors

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • In addition to the functions provided by the digital I/O type, this type of device commonly monitors the system supply voltages, providing an alarm when voltages rise above or sink below limits set via the I/O bus.
  • Fan monitoring and/or control can also be included in this type of IC.
  • In some cases, this class of device is used to determine whether a fan is working. More complex versions control the fan as a function of one or more measured temperatures.
types of interfaces
Types of Interfaces

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Interfaces include:
    • Single wire Pulse Width Modulation (PMW)
    • Two wire I2C and SMBus
      • Used mostly in PC and communications applications
    • Three or four wire SPI protocols.
      • Serial interface common in non-PC environments
    • Can also be bi-directional
      • Microcontroller gives instructions to the temperature sensor.
applications
Applications

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Remote Temperature Monitor
    • Measures two temperatures
      • Local Temperature
      • Temperature of a remote location using a diode connected transistor
    • Very useful in space constrained applications
    • May be integrated on a microprocessor chip
      • Eliminates the inaccuracy that results from a thermal resistance path between the sensor and chip.
      • Facilitates the ability to increase clock speed without exceeding thermal capabilities.
      • Can be used as a sensor for clock throttling.
    • Used in “almost every electronic system larger than a pager”.
cpu temperature sensor
CPU Temperature Sensor

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • A user-programmable temperature sensor monitors the temperature of a remote CPU's on-chip PN junction.

Image: Maxim Integrated Products

remote temperature sensor
Remote Temperature Sensor

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • This user programmable temperature sensor can monitor its own local temperature and the temperatures of four remote PN junctions.

Image: Maxim Integrated Products

distributed temperature sensing
Distributed Temperature Sensing

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Here a microcontroller strobes eight temperature sensors connected on a common line and receives the temperature data transmitted from each sensor on the same line.

Image: Maxim Integrated Products

applications28
Applications

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • Monitoring systems
    • Systems requiring thermal monitoring and control may require monitoring of other system parameters
      • Power supply
      • Internal voltages and currents
      • DC offsets of critical signals.
digital fan controller
Digital Fan Controller

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • A fan controller/temperature sensor IC can use either a PWM or a linear mode control scheme.

Image: Maxim Integrated Products

analog plus heater controller
Analog Plus Heater Controller

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • A temperature sensor can transmit a square wave whose frequency is proportional to temperature as part of a heater controller circuit.

Image: Maxim Integrated Products

digital over temp indicator
Digital Over-Temp Indicator

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • This sensor can signal when a temperature has been exceeded
  • Well suited for:
    • Over or under-temperature alarms
    • On/off fan control.

Image: Maxim Integrated Products

conclusions
Conclusions

Introduction

Limitations & Advantages

Working Principles

Sensor Types

Interfacing

Applications

Conclusions

  • IC Temperature Sensors:
    • Are small and inexpensive
    • Have desirable sensor characteristics
    • Are available in many interface types
    • Can be easily integrated into existing systems
    • Have many practical applications