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EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

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  1. EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

  2. Sport was closely aligned with social, spiritual, and economic aspects of life Gambling was widespread Sports played varied by tribe Baggataway (lacrosse) Shinny Double-ball Footraces Archery Swimming Fishing Canoeing NATIVE AMERICANS’ SPORTS

  3. PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE COLONIES • Early settlers — survived with hunting, fishing, and work-related recreation • Puritans — forbid frivolous activities • Dutch — bowling; sleighing; horse racing • Virginians — fox hunting; horse racing; hawking; cockfighting • British influence — rounders; cricket; boxing; track and field

  4. EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION • Introduction of German gymnastics • 1823-1833 — Round Hill School —Joseph Cogswell and George Bancroft • Daily sports and gymnastics • 1825-1830 — Charles Beck — turner and friend of Friedrich Jahn • Established an outdoor gymnastics area • Translated Jahn's book

  5. EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION • Charles Follen — turner and pupil of Jahn's • Established gymnasium in Boston in 1826 • Taught the first German gymnastics at Harvard in 1826 • Francis Lieber — pupil of Jahn and a turner • Directed the Boston gymnasium in 1827 • Started a pool in Boston in 1827

  6. GERMAN GYMNASTICS • In the late 1820s and 1830s, decline of interest in German gymnastics • Round Hill School closed; Follen, Lieber, and Beck went into other jobs • Newness wore off • Too much emphasis on nationalism and strength • Only German teachers • Revival of German gymnastics in the 1850s when immigrants moved to the Midwest • 1860 — 22 turnvereins; 1,672 members

  7. CATHARINE BEECHER • Director of the Hartford Seminary for Girls (1824) and the founder of the Western Female Institute (1837) • Calisthenics — a course of exercises designed to promote health and thus to secure beauty and strength • No special room or apparatus • For the whole family, but especially for women — diagrams of how to execute exercises

  8. CATHARINE BEECHER • Principles from Per Henrik Ling's Swedish gymnastics • Her program was probably the first system adapted to the needs of Americans • One of the first to actively struggle to establish physical education as a part of the school curriculum on a daily basis

  9. DIOCLESION LEWIS • Light gymnastics or exercises with wands, rings, bean-bags, dumbbells, and Indian clubs along with music — teacher directed exercises • Borrowed ideas from Catharine Beecher and Per Henrik Ling • 1861-1868 — Normal Institute for Physical Education in Boston — first teacher training school for physical education in the United States

  10. SWEDISH GYMNASTICS • Hartvig Nissen — Norwegian • In 1883 came to Washington, D.C. and taught Swedish gymnastics • Taught at Harvard Summer School, Sargent Normal School, and Posse-Nissen School

  11. SWEDISH GYMNASTICS • Baron Nils Posse • Graduated from the Royal Gymnastics Central Institute in Sweden • Came to Boston in 1885 • Taught at the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics (1889-1890) • Established the Posse Normal School in 1890

  12. BOSTON NORMAL SCHOOL OF GYMNASTICS — 1889 • Founded by Mary Hemenway • Directed by Amy Morris Homans • Nils Posse was the first teacher • Purpose was to train teachers in Swedish gymnastics • Moved to Wellesley College as the Department of Hygiene and Physical Education in 1909

  13. BOSTON CONFERENCE ON PHYSICAL TRAINING — 1889 • Purpose was "to bring to the attention of the general public and the leaders in the field the Swedish system." • Speakers also for the German system, the Sargent system, and Hitchcock's program

  14. EDWARD HITCHCOCK

  15. EDWARD HITCHCOCK —AMHERST — (1861-1911) • Students attended lectures on health. • Students were required to attend 30-minute classes 4 times per week. • Each class participated in 20 minutes of light gymnastics and marching. • Students could spend 10 minutes on individual apparatus work or sports. • Anthropometrics — find the average, ideal college male using age, weight, height, chest girth, arm girth, forearm girth, lung capacity, and pull-ups

  16. DUDLEY SARGENT

  17. DUDLEY SARGENT—HARVARD — (1879-1919) • Anthropometrics — to find the ideal student, but mostly to establish individualized goals and programs for each student (not a required program) • Apparatus — chest weights; chest pulleys; chest developers; leg machines; rowing machines — students used these machines in individualized programs • No Swedish or German gymnastics • Sports, such as boxing, rowing, and baseball, were promoted

  18. DUDLEY SARGENT • Sargent School for Physical Education — 1881 — initially taught women at Harvard Annex and later became a teacher training school for physical education • Harvard Summer School (1887-1932) —advanced teacher training program

  19. DELPHINE HANNA — OBERLIN — (1885-1920) • 1903 — Professor of physical education • Anthropometrics of college women • Instructed Luther Gulick, Thomas Wood, Jay Nash, and Jesse Williams

  20. WILLIAM ANDERSON • Brooklyn (Anderson) Normal School (1886-1953) • Chautaugua Summer School of Physical Education (1886-1930s)

  21. ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION — 1885 • Founded by William Anderson • Major issues between 1885-1900 • Anthropometrics • Battle of the Systems

  22. EARLIER NAMES 1885 Association for the Advancement of Physical Education 1886 American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education 1903 American Physical Education Association 1937 American Association for Health and Physical Education 1938 American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation 1974 American Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 1979 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

  23. YOUNG MEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION AND YOUNG WOMEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION • YMCA founded in 1844 in England by George Williams • YMCA founded in 1851 in Boston • YWCA founded in 1866 in Boston by Mrs. Henry Durant

  24. YMCA AND YWCA • 1885 — YMCA Training School in Springfield — to train YMCA directors • Purposes of the YMCA — to develop the all-around man (intellectual, physical, and spiritual) • Central School of Hygiene and Physical Education was the YWCA training school

  25. BATTLE OF THE SYSTEMS SYSTEM PURPOSE • German gymnastics Developed individual abilities and healthy, strong youth for war or emergencies using apparatus • Swedish gymnastics Promoted health, correct expression, and beauty of performance using exact movement patterns • Hitchcock’s system Emphasized health through required exercises with light apparatus • Sargent’s system Advocated hygienic, educative, recreative, and remedial aims through individualized exercises on apparatus • Association gymnastics Contributed to the development of the all-around man

  26. PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION INSTITUTIONS YEAR FOUNDER NAME PROGRAM 1861 Lewis Normal Institute for Light gymnastics Physical Education 1866 Turners Normal School of North German gymnastics American Gymnastic Union 1881 Sargent Sargent School for Theoretical and Physical Education practical curriculum 1885 YMCA YMCA Training School Association gymnastics 1886 Anderson Chautauqua Summer Advanced theoretical School of Physical and practical Education curriculum

  27. PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION INSTITUTIONS YEAR FOUNDER NAME PROGRAM 1886 Anderson Brooklyn (Anderson) Theoretical and Normal School practical curriculum 1887 Sargent Harvard Summer School Advanced of Physical Education theoretical and practical curriculum 1889 Hemenway Boston Normal School Swedish gymnastics and Homans of Gymnastics 1890 Posse Posse Normal School Swedish gymnastics

  28. PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS • 1896-1903 American Physical Education Review • 1903-1930 APEA Review • 1930-1938 Journal of Health and Physical Education • 1938-1974 Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation • 1975-1981 Journal of Physical Education and Recreation • 1981-present Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance • 1930-1979 Research Quarterly • 1980-present Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

  29. DEVELOPMENT OF AMATEUR SPORTS • 1868 — New York Athletic Club founded • 1888 — Amateur Athletic Union started • 1852 — First intercollegiate sport for men (Harvard and Yale in rowing) • 1859 — First intercollegiate baseball game • 1869 — First intercollegiate football game • 1896 — First intercollegiate sport for women in basketball

  30. MEN'S AMATUER ATHLETICS • Socially elite — horse racing, dancing, gambling, cards, and yachting • Baseball (1744 — England; not 1839 in the United States) • Cycling — late 1800s • Tennis — 1874 from England • Golf — Scotland • Cricket and croquet clubs — late 1800s • 1891 — Basketball — James Naismith at the YMCA Training School • 1896 — Volleyball — William Morgan at a YMCA

  31. Dr. James Naismith's13 Original Rules of Basketball • The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands. • The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands (never with the fist). • A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man who catches the ball when running at a good speed if he tries to stop. • The ball must be held in or between the hands; the arms or body must not be used for holding it. • No shouldering, holding, pushing, tripping, or striking in any way the person of an opponent shall be allowed; the first infringement of this rule by any player shall count as a foul, the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made, or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game, no substitute allowed. • A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violation of Rules 3,4, and such as described in Rule 5. • If either side makes three consecutive fouls, it shall count a goal for the opponents (consecutive means without the opponents in the mean time making a foul). • A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edges, and the opponent moves the basket, it shall count as a goal. • When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field of play by the person first touching it. In case of a dispute, the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds; if he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on that side. • The umpire shall be judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have power to disqualify men according to Rule 5. • The referee shall be judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play, in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a goal has been made, and keep account of the goals with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee. • The time shall be two 15-minute halves, with five minutes' rest between. • The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner. In case of a draw, the game may, by agreement of the captains, be continued until another goal is made.

  32. AMATEUR SPORTS—1850-1900s • Athletic clubs (especially the New York Athletic Club) — provided sports opportunities for members (especially track and field) • 1879 — Amateur Athletic Union (1888)—"check the evils of professionalism and promote amateur sport" • 1912 — 538 athletic clubs and the AAU had 19,000 members • Competition offered (and said to control) 40 sports; later 16 sports — especially basketball, track and field, and boxing

  33. AAU AND NCAA CONFLICTS • Olympic team selection (1920s to the 1970s) • National Amateur Athletic Federation —1922 • Sanctioning of events • Certification of records • 1978 — Amateur Sports Act

  34. WOMEN’S SPORTS • Colonial period • Horseback riding; dancing; fox hunting • Next 100 years • Riding; walking; dancing; calisthenics • Late 1800s • Croquet; cycling; hiking (with clothing restrictions) • Tennis — 1874 • Gymnastics in bloomers