Historical Studies in Physical Education and Sport Our times and our attitudes, our games and our sports are shaped by the past. The Development of Popular Recreation in the U.K Popular recreation focuses on the pre-industrial sports and pastimes particularly of the lower class. Pre industrial (before 1800) popular recreation reflected the society life and time in which it existed. Recreational activities were colourful and lively and supported by a strict class system. • Real tennis – Aristocracy • Mob football – Peasants • Cock fighting – Mix of the above
Popular Recreation continued…………. • The 1800’s ‘drinking house’ was central to village life; the focus for leisure activities (barbaric or not) for the community. Examples of activities include: • Badger baiting - Billiards - Skittles • Dog fighting - Quoits • Prize fighting - Bowls The landlord was the promoter of ‘sports’, responsibilities included: • Arranging the matches • Providing prize money • Book keeping For example: Hambledon Cricket Club Bat and Ball Inn Hampshire
Popular Recreation More examples………… Country Pursuits (field sports) • Hunting • Coursing (chasing hares by trained dogs for wager) • Shooting Hunting grew from the search for food and developed into a status symbol for landowners. Game Laws ensured the sole right to kill game only to the upper class (causing lasting hostility in rural areas). Militaristic Combat activities - Archery - Sparring (early from of boxing) • Fencing Grew from the need to defend and attack. The functional role of the activities (listed above) was removed with the availability of guns did these skills develop into recreational and competitive sports in their own right.
Characteristics and Cultural Factors of Popular Recreation The unsophisticated (even uncivilised) sports and pastimes of common people were occasional rather than regular: WHY? Peasants had little free time for sports and pastimes Some sports developed from the occupation of participants e.g. competitive rowing, which grew from work of ferrymen taking passengers across the River Thames. Key Feature of most Popular Recreation was wagering or betting o the outcome
Characteristics of Popular Recreation(and cultural factors that influenced their development) Natural/simple: Lack of technology, purpose built facilities and money for the masses. Local: Limited transport and communications Simple unwritten rules: Illiteracy, no national governing bodies, only played locally Cruel/violent: Reflecting the harshness of eighteenth-century rural life Occasional: Free time for recreation Courtly/popular: Pre-industrial Britain was predominantly a two-class society Rural: Before the Industrial Revolution, Britain was agricultural and rural Occupational: Work often became the basis of play Wagering: A chance to go from rags to riches
The Development of Sports FestivalsIntroduction • Sports Festivals are examples of community activities developed over the years • Wide range of popular sports & games prior to modern sports were the foundation for today’s rationalised athletics • Examples – Hiring Fairs and Village Wakes • Wakes originated from the time of paganism and were a great social occasion • Fairs were opportunities for men to test their strength and virility and included all kinds of excess e.g. drinking, blood sports and promiscuity
The Development of Sports FestivalsPedestrianism • Obvious forerunner to Athletics • Seen as enhancement for gentlemen’s social status • Some races attracting purses of up to 1000 guineas for athletes of all backgrounds • Pioneered by Scottish landowner, Robert Barclay Allardice • 1809 – Crowd of c.10,000 for 1000 miles walk in 1000 consecutive hours • Gambling became central to Pedestrianism • People in poverty could wager their way to survival • Trickery included – Professional athletes using false names and race fixing
The Development of Sports Festivals Task: What traditional festivals exist in your area today and what do they involve?
Popular Recreation - Bathing As well as natural playground, rivers provided: • A ready supply of food • A means of transport • Place to wash With work, play and the river so inter-related, learning to swim for safety also become a necessity. Link: bathing, recreation, survival and health The English aristocracy of the Middle Ages considered the ability to swim as part of their chivalric code. Chivalric code = gentlemanly behaviour associated with the nobility or aristocracy.
Popular Recreation - Bathing continued……. Aristocrats would sometimes sponsor outstanding lower class swimmers to represent them in wager races (link; popular recreation characteristic – wagering). Key Event Charles II established a series of fashionable swimming contests on the Thames and the 1st open air swimming bath was built in London 1784.
Popular Recreation - Rowing Rowing: Functional activity for warfare, fishing and travel In the days when there were few bridges across the River Thames ferrymen were in demand. The wealthy employed watermen. Watermen: men who earned their living on or about boats. Key Qu: To what extent does early rowing fit with the characteristics of popular recreation? It was neither cruel nor violent, did not lack rules and was not unorganised. However, it was of local importance and it is perhaps the best example of an occupation that became a recreation.
Games in Popular Recreation - Cricket Social classes played together reflecting the feudal/class structure of the village. Patrons (similar to modern day sponsor or agent) employed estate workers as gardeners and gamekeepers primarily for their cricketing talents. Early clubs emerged from these rural village sides. There are three main aspects of the story of early cricket • The Bat and Ball Inn A pub in Hambledon, nicknamed ‘the cradle’ of cricket as it was where the game was encouraged and developed from 1750. Large crowds of up to 2,000 spectators watched and wagered on the outcome of matches.
Games in Popular Recreation – Cricket continued………… 2. Martlebone Cricket Club Gentlemen who developed the laws of cricket in 1774 formed the While Conduit Club, which became Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in 1788. The rise of MCC forced the decline of Hambledon. Players were now employed by MCC as coaches and players. MCC became the main club in England and took on the role of the governing body. 3. The William Clarke XI (professional touring side, attracting huge crowds taking on teams of 22 opponents) William Clarke developed cricket from a fragmented localised sport to a national success.
Games in Popular Recreation – Cricket continued……………. Cricket was a popular recreation because: it attracted widespread wagering played by both ale and female predominantly rural associated with feasts and festival days. Rules could be locally adapted. On the other hand: • It was predominantly non-violent • It had an early rule structure • National touring sides from 1840’s * Task: you should assess the extent to when early cricket fits the accepted model of popular recreation.
Games in Popular Recreation - Real Tennis Real (or royal tennis) originated in France became popular in Britain in the 1400’s. An exclusive game for kings, nobles and merchants who played on purpose built highly sophisticated courts (varied in size and shape). The game had complex rules and required high levels of skill. Those not eligible to play real tennis would copy their social superiors and play their own versions (tennis, fives, racquets) against church or pub walls. Racquets Originated in Fleet Prison, London and ended up being played by upper-class public school and university students. Prison inmates were not hardened criminals but debtors and often gentlemen of high social standings so they were allowed to exercise in the prison yard.
Games in Popular Recreation – Mob Football Mob Football e.g. Ashbourne Game A variety of games involving kicking and throwing a ball were regular features of English pre-industrial society. Mob football recognised as little more than massive brawls involving brute force between hoards of young men. Throughout history kings, government and local authorities have frowned on mob games because they caused: • Damage to property • Injury to young men/making them unfit for army training • Disrespect for to Sabbath • Social unrest (riots) Shove Tuesday became a traditional day for mob games, seen as an opportunity for fun and excitement before the seriousness of Lent. Task: If you were watching an ancient Shrove Tuesday game of mob football, what characteristics of the game would you expect to see?
Mob Football Continued…………. Mob Games can be recognised by their lack of: • Set rules Set Pitch Specific boundaries • Set position Ref/Umpire Regularity • Skilfulness (lack of skill mainly displays of force + violence) Task: How did mob football reflect pre-industrial Britain?
19th Century Public School Developments of Athleticism Public Schools – controlled by a group of trustees and not privately owned Characteristics of 19th Century Public Schools • Boarding – Time available increasingly spent on games • Expanding – As numbers increased, houses were formed • Non-local – Regional games adopted and adapted by individual schools • Spartan – Harsh treatment and living conditions prepared boys for rigorous competition • Controlled by Trustees – Influential people investing in and promoting the school towards sporting success
19th Century Public School Developments of Athleticism • Endowed – Well endowed schools in receipt of money or property for improved facilities and coaching professionals • Fee-paying – Influential pupils contributing towards facilities development • Gentry – Influential families bringing money and influence • Boys – Great energy and enthusiasm channelled into games
19th Century Public School Developments of Athleticism Task: Make the comparisons between the characteristics of Boys Boarding Schools in the modern institution?
Technical and Social DevelopmentsStage 1 – Bullying and Brutality 1790-1828 At this time: English society contrasted the high culture (regency period) with the low culture (blood sports and bare knuckle fighting). Both ends of the spectrum were mirrored in the public schools. A time of ‘boy culture’ phases of chaos if things didn’t go their way. All recreational activities were organised by the boys for pure enjoyment and to relieve the boredom of academic work. However with increasing numbers of upper-class boys enrolling from a variety of different preparatory schools, bringing with them customs and recreations from all over the country. These different customs and traditions mixed and moulded into schoolboy games and future traditions. Games ad sports was seen as a medium for social control, instilling order, stability and good behaviour through sportsmanship. However, this was not always the case, there was no master involvement outside the classroom.
Technical and Social DevelopmentsStage 1 – Bullying and Brutality 1790-1828continued…………. This era was one of ‘institutionalised’ poplar recreation and activities ranging from childlike to barbaric. Hoops and marbles took place alongside bare knuckle fights and mob football. Eton and Charterhouse were birthplaces of unique and ferocious mob football games. Cricket, the rural game already organised and played by both classes in society was immediately adopted by the schools because of it’s inclusion ethic.
Technical and Social DevelopmentsStage Two (1828 – 1842) Dr Thomas Arnold and social control A Time of change, both in society (reform and social control) and at large and in the English public schools. - Parliament and criminal laws were changing (e.g banning cruelty to animals) - Transport and communication improving • With life and society becoming more orderly, the freedom and wild escapades of Stage 1 became more and more out of place.
Dr Thomas Arnold(Head of Rugby School from 1828 – 1842)Regarded as a man who reformed the English public school system at a time when it was out of control. Dr Thomas Arnold (initiated) and other liberal headmasters (copied) reformed the public schools by: • Changing the behaviour of boys • Changing the severity of punishments by masters • Role of sixth form • Academic curriculum Main Aim: preach good moral behaviour. This was part of muscular Christianity or the belief in having a strong, robust, hearty soul with a strong, fit body.
Stage 2 ………….. continued It was fine to play sport and to play hard but always for the glory of God – not for its own sake or for any extrinsic values. • Arnold used games as a vehicle for establishing social control. • Arnold also established a more trusting and sympathetic relationship with sixth form while his masters gradually adopted status of sixth form increased the powers of discipline and in return required them to positive role models. • Sixth form = link between masters and boys • Growth of the house system House System The House system became the focus of boys personal, social, recreational and sporting existence. The House System ultimately set an environment of healthy competition and cohesive attitudes.
Technical and Social DevelopmentsStage 3 – Athleticism + the ‘Cult’ (1842 – 1914) Public school is of mellowed building magnificent games fields, colours, caps, cricketers = All symbols of athleticism Athleticism: The combination of physical effort and moral integrity or playing hard but with sportsmanship. Athleticism reached cult proportions: a craze or obsession of playing team games. Compulsory games for the development of character became compulsory at Clifton and at Uppingham. At grammar schools games were central to school life. Voluntary free time activities (not yet as part of the curriculum) included: *Rowing *Football *Cricket *Various racquet games
Stage 3 – Continued……… On leaving university, these young men would go into adult life taking the ‘games ethic’ with them. Task: Consider what some academics have said about the emergence of athleticism in this stage. The ex-public school boy was expected to have a well rounded character, impeccable manners and enviable personal qualities. Having led a team on the games field, it was assumed that he could lead a regiment on the battlefield. 1850 onwards: Games were purposefully deliberately assimilated into the formal curriculum of the public school.
Technical and Social DevelopmentsStage 3 – Athleticism + the ‘Cult’ (1842 – 1914) The development of athleticism in girls’ public schools Athleticism reaching cult proportions in boys’ public schools , there was a delay in the development of opportunities for the upper-middle class girls. Reasons: • Traditional role of women (education – seen as a threat to the behavioural norms of society) • Anxiety - over wearing of slightly revealing clothing for physical exercise. • It was not considered necessary to give girls the same opportunities as boys. • Unladylike – it was thought inappropriate for women to be competitive or lively • Medical concerns – strenuous physical activity would complicate/prohibit child bearing
Technical and Social DevelopmentsStage 3 – Athleticism + the ‘Cult’ (1842 – 1914) Examples of great pioneers of and for physical education in the mid to late 19th century are: • Frances Mary Blues • Dorothea Beale • Madame Bergman Osterberg Task: In which of the three stages of development would you place the following (some fit in more than 1 stage) * Muscular Christianity * House System *Mob Activities *Values * Hooligans *Social Control * Character development * Dr Thomas Arnold * Recreation
Technical developments: the emergence of structured and organised popular recreational activities and their development into recognised sports Swimming: (beginning of the 19th century) - bathing in public schools was spontaneous, unorganised and centred around natural facilities (rivers and ponds). Boys had swum in the open at home and brought this culture to school. However there was no master input or supervision. As the century progressed, athleticism developed. Swimming became more structured and regulated with natural facilities such as Duck Puddle at Harrow being transformed into major bathing facility equipped with changing huts, diving boards, and with swimming instructors and arranged competitive events. Increasingly headmasters regarded swimming as a necessary athletic, also believing that water immersion was therapeutic.
Technical developments: the emergence of structured and organised popular recreational activities and their development into recognised sports Rowing: viewed as a vehicle for the promotion to set desirable values into school boys. The adoption of rowing by Eton, Shrewsbury, Westminster, Oxford and Cambridge dates from 1800. Other schools that had river access soon followed. The first inter-school race was between Westminster and Eton and the University Boat Race was first rowed at Henley in 1829 Fear of drowning caused the sport to become more formalised from the 1840’s and participants were required to pass swimming tests.
Technical developments: the emergence of structured and organised popular recreational activities and their development into recognised sports Athletics: Eighteenth-century public school boys took the sports of their local village wakes and fairs back to school. Predominantly played for fun and to relieve the boredom of school life. By the 1870’s athletic sports day had become both a major social occasion and a symbol of a more modern age. School sports day represented an era of technical development, more friendly social relationships between boys and masters, and a developing interest in skilfulness over brute force. Sports Day were highly organised with elaborate programmes, press coverage, large numbers of spectators and military band.
Technical developments: the emergence of structured and organised popular recreational activities and their development into recognised sports Football: earliest days of public school history, impromptu, natural forms of football were played. Boys brought games from home which developed into school games. During the second phase of public school development, with rebellion almost over and fighting on the decline, football became the place to settle disputes and to show courage and determination. Ironically football helped the social class that had traditionally tried to kill it off and for the 1st time in British History it became respectable. By the 1860’s, transport and communication had greatly improved; more contests could be organised, however there were disagreements in inter-school matches as each school had different rules.
Technical developments: the emergence of structured and organised popular recreational activities and their development into recognised sports Cricket: popular rural game by the mid 1700’s, cricket was soon adopted b the public schools. Headmasters were happy to accept the game as its standardised rules, lack of violence and involvement by the gentry made it respectable. I also occupied boys and kept them out of mischief. During the 1850’s and 60’s, cricket grew with William Clarke XI touring the country to entertain and inspire. Cricket in public schools was now associated with: • Regularity as inter house and school game • Compulsory participation • Grand social occasions • The belief that it instilled a range of character building qualities.
Technical developments continued… Court and Racquet Games: Fives – was hugely popular in the public schools but failed to become a national game of any standing. This was because: • It had a tradition of being played as a recreational game in free time • Different versions of the game • Limited scope for developing character • The more sophisticated game of racquets was already established. Racquets and Squash: at first played informally by school boys. Ironically attaining a high social status in public schools, far beyond its beginnings in a prison. By 1850 two standardised courts were built at Harrow. Many argue that racquets led to the invention of the more compact and less expensive game of squash
Technical developments continued… Lawn Tennis: invented by and for the middle classes as a social experience. It also became a vehicle for the emancipation (freedom from restrictions) of women. It is not surprising that it was not welcomed by the boys’ public schools at a time when manliness and courage were all important. Why did the boys’ public schools reject lawn tennis? • Courts took up comparatively large space for the number of boys it occupied • Did not require the courage or physicality of football or cricket • Could not rival the contemporary status of cricket or football • Had a rep of being ‘pat ball’ and suitable only for girls • As a new invention it was treated with some suspicion
Rational Recreation in an Urban Industrial Society Characteristics of Rational Recreation • Regional national/international • Codification, administration • Respectable, fair play • Regular • Exclusive/Elitist • Urban/Sub-Urban • Control of Gambling • Purpose Built Facilities
Rational Recreation in an Urban Industrial Society Characteristics of Popular Recreation • Local • Simple, unwritten rules • Cruel/Violent • Occasional • Courtly/Popular • Rural • Wagering • Natural/Simple
Rational Recreation in an Urban Industrial Society Task: Aim to identify 3 additional changes which have occurred over the last few years
Urban Industrial Factors which influenced the development of Rational Sport • Industrial Revolution – Changes in working conditions • Urban Revolution – Changes in living conditions • Increased free time • The Railways – Excursions and trips, following your own team and going to the countryside • Changing Role of Women – Tennis used as a vehicle for emancipation for middle class • Middle Class Emergence – Changes in attitudes, tastes manners and expectations
Urban Industrial Factors which influenced the development of Rational Sport • Changing Working Conditions – Improved over time • Paid Holidays for Working Class – By end of century; benevolence of employers; provision of factory facilities • Saturday Half Day • Agrarian Revolution – Changes in Agricultural Methods
Urban Industrial Factors which influenced the development of Rational Sport Individual Activities Included: • Swimming • Athletics • Gymnastics Games Activities Included: • Football • Cricket • Tennis
The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in Post – Industrial Communities • The emergence of sport for the masses, particularly spectator sport, excursion trips and paid holidays were hard won • In early 19th century, rural peasants migrated to towns and cities in search of regular work, with sport or recreation being last thing on minds of industrial working class Things looking up… • Factory Acts improved working conditions; kind factory owners began to look after their staff to increase loyalty and morale in the workplace. • By 1890, workers had won their Saturday Half Day
The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in Post – Industrial Communities Swimming as a rationalised activity had several threads which consisted of: • The Water Cure and Regency Spa Movement • Victorian Sea Bathing • 19th Century Public Baths for the middle and working classes
The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in Post – Industrial Communities • The Water Cure was otherwise known as the therapeutic effect of immersion in water, which existed in inland spa’s such as Bath and Cheltenham • During the Victorian era, beaches were designated as socially exclusive and bathing machines were towed to the water giving bathers some privacy • By the 1870’s, the new rail network brought the working class to the seaside who copied activities of their social superiors • Swimming became fashionable for the middle and amateur class with competitive events being organised
The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in Post – Industrial Communities • 18th and 19th century industrialisation and urbanisation led to overcrowding and disease • In 1846, central government attempted to improve this with it’s wash house acts • This was whereby loans were offered to major towns if they built public baths
The Emergence of Track and Field Activities as a new form of Urban Festival • Due to the steady urbanisation of England, rural fairs came to an end followed by professional athletics being established in big industrial cities • The Amateur Athletics Association (AAA) was established in 1880 which helped increase working class involvement in sports • The organisation was responsible for opening up the sport to all levels of society without compromising it’s image
The Emergence of Track and Field Activities as a new form of Urban Festival The Modern Olympic Movement • A French aristocrat named Baron Pierre de Coubertin who was inspired by sport started the Olympic Games in 1896, with his aim to foster athleticism and friendship between nations • However, by the time the games came to London in 1908, all his ideas had largely been crushed • This conflict was captured in the film ‘Chariots of Fire’ (1981). This follows the preparations and Olympic fortunes of two British athletes in the Paris Games of 1924
The Rationalisation of Games Association Football • Following the formation of the Football Association (FA), Soccer became both an amateur game for gentlemen and a professional game for the ‘people’ (Working Class) • It soon became clear, that football was a regular spectator attraction rather than an annual festival occasion • Therefore, due to players becoming unable to agree time off work, the FA reluctantly accepted professionalism
The Rationalisation of Games Cricket • In the 1870’s, county cricket took over from the touring XI’s as a spectator attraction – while county communities needed and respected professionals, they kept them firmly in their social place • E.G – They had different names, Pro v’s Amateur. They even had different eating arrangements and did not even travel to matches together or share a changing room