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EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT. Sport was closely aligned with social, spiritual, and economic aspects of life Gambling was widespread Sports played varied by tribe. Baggataway (lacrosse) Shinny Double-ball Footraces Archery Swimming Fishing Canoeing.

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native americans sports
Sport was closely aligned with social, spiritual, and economic aspects of life

Gambling was widespread

Sports played varied by tribe

Baggataway (lacrosse)

Shinny

Double-ball

Footraces

Archery

Swimming

Fishing

Canoeing

NATIVE AMERICANS’ SPORTS
physical activities in the colonies
PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE COLONIES
  • Early settlers — survived with hunting, fishing, and work-related recreation
  • Puritans — forbid frivolous activities
  • Dutch — bowling; sleighing; horse racing
  • Virginians — fox hunting; horse racing; hawking; cockfighting
  • British influence — rounders; cricket; boxing; track and field
early american physical education
EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
  • Introduction of German gymnastics
  • 1823-1833 — Round Hill School —Joseph Cogswell and George Bancroft
    • Daily sports and gymnastics
  • 1825-1830 — Charles Beck — turner and friend of Friedrich Jahn
    • Established an outdoor gymnastics area
    • Translated Jahn's book
early american physical education5
EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
  • Charles Follen — turner and pupil of Jahn's
    • Established gymnasium in Boston in 1826
    • Taught the first German gymnastics at Harvard in 1826
  • Francis Lieber — pupil of Jahn and a turner
    • Directed the Boston gymnasium in 1827
    • Started a pool in Boston in 1827
german gymnastics
GERMAN GYMNASTICS
  • In the late 1820s and 1830s, decline of interest in German gymnastics
  • Round Hill School closed; Follen, Lieber, and Beck went into other jobs
  • Newness wore off
  • Too much emphasis on nationalism and strength
  • Only German teachers
  • Revival of German gymnastics in the 1850s when immigrants moved to the Midwest
  • 1860 — 22 turnvereins; 1,672 members
catharine beecher
CATHARINE BEECHER
  • Director of the Hartford Seminary for Girls (1824) and the founder of the Western Female Institute (1837)
  • Calisthenics — a course of exercises designed to promote health and thus to secure beauty and strength
    • No special room or apparatus
    • For the whole family, but especially for women — diagrams of how to execute exercises
catharine beecher8
CATHARINE BEECHER
  • Principles from Per Henrik Ling's Swedish gymnastics
  • Her program was probably the first system adapted to the needs of Americans
  • One of the first to actively struggle to establish physical education as a part of the school curriculum on a daily basis
dioclesion lewis
DIOCLESION LEWIS
  • Light gymnastics or exercises with wands, rings, bean-bags, dumbbells, and Indian clubs along with music — teacher directed exercises
  • Borrowed ideas from Catharine Beecher and Per Henrik Ling
  • 1861-1868 — Normal Institute for Physical Education in Boston — first teacher training school for physical education in the United States
swedish gymnastics
SWEDISH GYMNASTICS
  • Hartvig Nissen — Norwegian
    • In 1883 came to Washington, D.C. and taught Swedish gymnastics
    • Taught at Harvard Summer School, Sargent Normal School, and Posse-Nissen School
swedish gymnastics11
SWEDISH GYMNASTICS
  • Baron Nils Posse
    • Graduated from the Royal Gymnastics Central Institute in Sweden
    • Came to Boston in 1885
    • Taught at the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics (1889-1890)
  • Established the Posse Normal School in 1890
boston normal school of gymnastics 1889
BOSTON NORMAL SCHOOL OF GYMNASTICS — 1889
  • Founded by Mary Hemenway
  • Directed by Amy Morris Homans
  • Nils Posse was the first teacher
  • Purpose was to train teachers in Swedish gymnastics
  • Moved to Wellesley College as the Department of Hygiene and Physical Education in 1909
boston conference on physical training 1889
BOSTON CONFERENCE ON PHYSICAL TRAINING — 1889
  • Purpose was "to bring to the attention of the general public and the leaders in the field the Swedish system."
  • Speakers also for the German system, the Sargent system, and Hitchcock's program
edward hitchcock amherst 1861 1911
EDWARD HITCHCOCK —AMHERST — (1861-1911)
  • Students attended lectures on health.
  • Students were required to attend 30-minute classes 4 times per week.
  • Each class participated in 20 minutes of light gymnastics and marching.
  • Students could spend 10 minutes on individual apparatus work or sports.
  • Anthropometrics — find the average, ideal college male using age, weight, height, chest girth, arm girth, forearm girth, lung capacity, and pull-ups
dudley sargent harvard 1879 1919
DUDLEY SARGENT—HARVARD — (1879-1919)
  • Anthropometrics — to find the ideal student, but mostly to establish individualized goals and programs for each student (not a required program)
  • Apparatus — chest weights; chest pulleys; chest developers; leg machines; rowing machines — students used these machines in individualized programs
  • No Swedish or German gymnastics
  • Sports, such as boxing, rowing, and baseball, were promoted
dudley sargent18
DUDLEY SARGENT
  • Sargent School for Physical Education — 1881 — initially taught women at Harvard Annex and later became a teacher training school for physical education
  • Harvard Summer School (1887-1932) —advanced teacher training program
delphine hanna oberlin 1885 1920
DELPHINE HANNA — OBERLIN — (1885-1920)
  • 1903 — Professor of physical education
  • Anthropometrics of college women
  • Instructed Luther Gulick, Thomas Wood, Jay Nash, and Jesse Williams
william anderson
WILLIAM ANDERSON
  • Brooklyn (Anderson) Normal School (1886-1953)
  • Chautaugua Summer School of Physical Education (1886-1930s)
association for the advancement of physical education 1885
ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION — 1885
  • Founded by William Anderson
  • Major issues between 1885-1900
    • Anthropometrics
    • Battle of the Systems
earlier names
EARLIER NAMES

1885 Association for the Advancement of Physical Education

1886 American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education

1903 American Physical Education Association

1937 American Association for Health and Physical Education

1938 American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation

1974 American Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

1979 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

young men s christian association and young women s christian association
YOUNG MEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION AND YOUNG WOMEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION
  • YMCA founded in 1844 in England by George Williams
  • YMCA founded in 1851 in Boston
  • YWCA founded in 1866 in Boston by Mrs. Henry Durant
ymca and ywca
YMCA AND YWCA
  • 1885 — YMCA Training School in Springfield — to train YMCA directors
    • Purposes of the YMCA — to develop the all-around man (intellectual, physical, and spiritual)
  • Central School of Hygiene and Physical Education was the YWCA training school
battle of the systems
BATTLE OF THE SYSTEMS

SYSTEM PURPOSE

  • German gymnastics Developed individual abilities and healthy, strong youth for war or emergencies using apparatus
  • Swedish gymnastics Promoted health, correct expression, and beauty of performance using exact movement patterns
  • Hitchcock’s system Emphasized health through required exercises with light apparatus
  • Sargent’s system Advocated hygienic, educative, recreative, and remedial aims through individualized exercises on apparatus
  • Association gymnastics Contributed to the development of the all-around man
professional preparation institutions
PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION INSTITUTIONS

YEAR FOUNDER NAME PROGRAM

1861 Lewis Normal Institute for Light gymnastics Physical Education

1866 Turners Normal School of North German gymnastics American Gymnastic

Union

1881 Sargent Sargent School for Theoretical and Physical Education practical curriculum

1885 YMCA YMCA Training School Association gymnastics

1886 Anderson Chautauqua Summer Advanced theoretical School of Physical and practical Education curriculum

professional preparation institutions27
PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION INSTITUTIONS

YEAR FOUNDER NAME PROGRAM

1886 Anderson Brooklyn (Anderson) Theoretical and Normal School practical curriculum

1887 Sargent Harvard Summer School Advanced of Physical Education theoretical and practical curriculum

1889 Hemenway Boston Normal School Swedish gymnastics and Homans of Gymnastics

1890 Posse Posse Normal School Swedish gymnastics

professional publications
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS
  • 1896-1903 American Physical Education Review
  • 1903-1930 APEA Review
  • 1930-1938 Journal of Health and Physical Education
  • 1938-1974 Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation
  • 1975-1981 Journal of Physical Education and Recreation
  • 1981-present Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance
  • 1930-1979 Research Quarterly
  • 1980-present Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
development of amateur sports
DEVELOPMENT OF AMATEUR SPORTS
  • 1868 — New York Athletic Club founded
  • 1888 — Amateur Athletic Union started
  • 1852 — First intercollegiate sport for men (Harvard and Yale in rowing)
  • 1859 — First intercollegiate baseball game
  • 1869 — First intercollegiate football game
  • 1896 — First intercollegiate sport for women in basketball
men s amatuer athletics
MEN'S AMATUER ATHLETICS
  • Socially elite — horse racing, dancing, gambling, cards, and yachting
  • Baseball (1744 — England; not 1839 in the United States)
  • Cycling — late 1800s
  • Tennis — 1874 from England
  • Golf — Scotland
  • Cricket and croquet clubs — late 1800s
  • 1891 — Basketball — James Naismith at the YMCA Training School
  • 1896 — Volleyball — William Morgan at a YMCA
amateur sports 1850 1900s
AMATEUR SPORTS—1850-1900s
  • Athletic clubs (especially the New York Athletic Club) — provided sports opportunities for members (especially track and field)
  • 1879 — Amateur Athletic Union (1888)—"check the evils of professionalism and promote amateur sport"
  • 1912 — 538 athletic clubs and the AAU had 19,000 members
  • Competition offered (and said to control) 40 sports; later 16 sports — especially basketball, track and field, and boxing
aau and ncaa conflicts
AAU AND NCAA CONFLICTS
  • Olympic team selection (1920s to the 1970s)
  • National Amateur Athletic Federation —1922
    • Sanctioning of events
    • Certification of records
  • 1978 — Amateur Sports Act
women s sports
WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • Colonial period
    • Horseback riding; dancing; fox hunting
  • Next 100 years
    • Riding; walking; dancing; calisthenics
  • Late 1800s
    • Croquet; cycling; hiking (with clothing restrictions)
    • Tennis — 1874
    • Gymnastics in bloomers