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Cassandra A. Smith. Makah Potato Genomics Workshop June 22-July 2, 2003 USDA/ARS National Science Foundation . Daniel Andrade Dr. Charles Brown Dr. David Culley Neuee V. Ward Tia Beavert Hazel R. Denney Cassandra Smith. Ozette Potato Research Crew.

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cassandra a smith

Cassandra A. Smith

Makah Potato Genomics Workshop

June 22-July 2, 2003

USDA/ARS National Science Foundation

ozette potato research crew
Daniel Andrade

Dr. Charles Brown

Dr. David Culley

Neuee V. Ward

Tia Beavert

Hazel R. Denney

Cassandra Smith

Ozette Potato Research Crew

One of the reasons behind learning and researching topics such as nematodes and DNA configuration is to cross-breed and create potatoes that are resistant to disease and at the same time have a high nutritional value.

This main reasons we are researching the Ozette potato, because it is already resistant to many diseases and it was found to be rich and antioxidants.


Another main reason we are researching the Ozette potato is to find out where it may have derived from.


preparation for dna extraction
Preparation For DNA Extraction

Day One

We take notes to better understand the concept of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Electroehoresis and what role they play in genetics.


Configuring DNA Models

Hazel and I are constructing DNA models to gain a better perspective using a hands-on approach.

Daniel also gives a demonstration on how a double helix is configured.


We also got to see first hand the various types of potatoes.

Certain types of potatoes contain certain amounts of antioxidants.


The pigment of the potato flesh can help determine it’s nutrition value.

This is variation in pigmentation from one seed envelope of Solanum phureja from Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin.


DNA Extraction Using Micropipettes

Day Two

Daniel and Tia are working together to prepare the micro-pipettes to add the buffer.

We begin the extraction process by freezing the potato leaves in microcentrifuge tubes with liquid nitrogen and then grinding them up within the tubes using Konte’s pestles.




Dr. Brown instructs us as we prepare to spin the samples.

Our supervisor Neuee also gets in on the action.


Nematode Presentation

Presented by Hassan Mojtahedi

Day Three

Dr. Mojahedi carefully explains the wrath of the dreaded nematode and how it can take it’s toll on your crop, especially potatoes.

Dr. Brown give us a review.


Seen here is the Tobacco Rattle virus. It was first observed in tobacco plants and later seen in other crops.

Below are infected potato roots.

S. hongasii

Russet Burbank

S. bulboscastanum






Figure 3. Development of invading M. chitwoodi in root. A. Solanum tuberosum (susceptible), B. Solanum fendleri. C. Solanum hougasii. D. Solanum bulbocastanum all at 25 days post- inoculation. 60x


Corky ringspot scoring from Pasco and Umatilla fields, 1999

Norkotah Russet

Russet Burbank

Norkotah Russet, Pasco ‘99

PA95A11-14, Pasco ‘99

PA95A11-14, Umatilla ‘99

PA95A11-14, Pasco ‘99


Learning How to Prepare Gels

Day Four

We have to prepare and load gels manually and this can be very time consuming for a beginner.


Our DNA Gel Results

Day Five

After rinsing the gel with purified water, acedic acid, and silver nitrate, we begin to see results.

As it turns out the DNA was good, but quite a few things went wrong and we and we had to start over.


It was a long and drawn out process but we managed to fit an entire weeks worth of work into a single weekend.

Day Seven

Hazel and I are shown separating DNA for size.


We let the gel set overnight and the next morning we rinsed the gels and got amazing results.

Day Eight


Presentation by Dr. George Vandemark

Day Nine

Dr. Vandemark explained how a template of DNA could duplicate itself and he also explained how important it is to understand this concept when dealing with disease control.



Over the past several days, our research crew has learned new techniques and acquired enough knowledge to format this power point presentation. We have worked hard in the lab and in our spare time we were on the computers preparing our own personal presentations. And without further ado I present to you a brief collection of us working together on various projects.


On behalf of our research crew I’d like to give mad props to the following:

Dr. Charles Brown, Kay Brown, Dr. Dave “Tidal wave” Culley, Daniel Andrade, Tia Beavert and Neuee V. Ward.

Thank You!