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APAH REVIEW PART I. Paleolithic Sculpture. Woman of Willendorf 28,000 BCE Served as fertility image (?). No facial features Ball-like, abstract shapes Emphasis= reproduction parts of female body. Paleolithic Painting. Lascaux Hall of Bulls C.13,000 BCE Naturalistic, well observed

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paleolithic sculpture
Paleolithic Sculpture
  • Woman of Willendorf
  • 28,000 BCE
    • Served as fertility image (?).
    • No facial features
    • Ball-like, abstract shapes
    • Emphasis= reproduction parts of female body
paleolithic painting
Paleolithic Painting
  • Lascaux Hall of Bulls
  • C.13,000 BCE
  • Naturalistic, well observed
  • Animals placed randomly
  • Natural groundline
  • Deep recesses of caves
  • Spiritual (?)
neolithic
Neolithic
  • Landscape with Volcanic Eruption
  • 6150 BCE
    • World’s 1st landscape, real place
    • 1st depiction of place devoid of both humans & animals
    • 1st painting on manmade wall
neolithic structure
Neolithic Structure
  • Stonehenge
  • c2,000 BCE
  • Salisbury Plain, England
  • Post and lintel
  • Megaliths
  • Cosmic calendar?
  • Harvest rituals?
  • Religious?
  • Summer solstice
  • heelstone
old kingdom egypt
Old Kingdom Egypt
          • Khafre
  • 2520-2494 BCE
    • Diorite
    • Rigid, Canon of Proportions
    • Flawless, ideal body
    • Bilaterally Symmetrical
    • Houses the “Ka”
    • Iconography-Unified Egy
    • Falcon= Horus
new kingdom egypt
New Kingdom Egypt
  • Akhenaton
  • 1353-1335 BCE
  • AMARNA period
  • Moved capital
    • Elongated face, full lips, and curves
    • Crook and flail
    • Departs from Canon of
    • Proportions (grid)
sumerian
Sumerian
  • Votive Figures
  • Tell Asmar site
  • c2600 BCE
  • Limestone figures
  • Surrogate figures
  • Placed in temple shrine
  • Conical forms
assyrian
Assyrian
  • Lamassu
  • 720 BCE
  • High relief, textures
  • Characteristics
    • 5 legs=conceptual
    • Human head, beard
    • Bull body w/ wings
persian
Persian
  • Ambassadors Processional frieze
  • Persepolis, Iran, c500 BCE
    • At audience hall of Darius & Xerxes
    • Reliefs on staircases, representatives of 23 subject nations bringing gifts
    • Subtly modeled surfaces
    • Drapery echoes Archaic Greek sculpture
minoan
Minoan
  • Bull Leaping fresco
  • 1450-1400 BCE
    • Bull is elongated, movement
    • Women have fair skin, Man has dark skin
    • Narrative, probably religious ritual
cycladic
Cycladic
  • Figurine of a Woman
  • 2500-2300 BCE
  • Characteristics
  • Abstract, flat
    • Triangles dominate
    • Emphasis on breasts
    • Incised lines
    • Fertility goddess (?)
mycenaean
Mycenaean
  • Lion Gate
  • 1300-1250 BCE
  • Characteristics
    • Capped with a huge lintel
    • Above lintel is corbelled arch
    • Relieving triangle
archaic greek sculpture
Archaic Greek Sculpture
  • Kouros
  • 600 BCE
  • Commemorative
    • Life-size, nude, young men are kouroi and life-size, clothed, young women are korai
    • Emulates the stance of Egyptian statues
      • Left foot advanced
      • Nude  Perfect body
archaic greek architecture
Archaic Greek Architecture
          • Temple of Hera I
  • 550 BCE
  • Characteristics
    • Doric Temple
    • Peripteral, Colonnade
    • Columns= entasis
classical greek sculpture
Classical Greek Sculpture
  • Doryphoros, Spear Bearer by Polykleitos
  • 450 BCE
  • Greece’s Golden Age
    • Contrapposto
    • “The Canon”= set standards for ideal
    • Perfect, harmonious ratios
classical greek architecture
Classical Greek Architecture
  • Parthenon
  • 447-438 BCE
  • Numerous optical refinements –
  • ded. to Athena Parthenos
    • Perfect, harmonious proportions in Doric temple design
    • Golden ratio throughout plan
    • Doric columns ext, interior Ionic frieze
hellenistic greek sculpture
Hellenistic Greek Sculpture
  • Seated Boxer
  • 100-50 BCE
    • Heavily Battered, defeated veteran
    • Nose broken, teeth missing
    • Appealed to the emotions
    • Realism
etruscan
Etruscan
  • Etruscan Couple Sarcophagus
  • c500 BCE
  • Terracotta
  • Happy memorial
  • Portrait coffin
  • m/f interaction
  • Smooth, stylized bodies
roman sculpture
Roman Sculpture
  • Augustus of Primaporta
  • 1st century CE
  • Emperor as general
  • Based on Spear Bearer
  • Portrait head
  • Chestplate=victory over Parthians
  • Cupid= proclaims his divine descent
roman architecture
Roman Architecture
  • Pantheon
  • 120 CE
    • Temple of all the gods
    • Uninterrupted interior space
    • Concrete dome
    • Oculus
early christian mosaic
Early Christian Mosaic
  • Good Shepherd
  • c 425 CE
  • Christ with flock
  • Lunette over door
  • Some classical elements
  • Illusionistic shading
  • Stylized landscape
  • Stars of Heaven
  • Halo, gold, purple
byzantine architecture
Byzantine Architecture
  • Hagia Sophia
  • 535 CE
  • Characteristics
    • Mystical Quality of light floods interior
    • Central plan w/
    • Longitudinal axis
    • Pendentives for the dome
byzantine mosaic
Byzantine Mosaic
  • Justinian and Attendants
  • 550 CE, San Vitale, Ravenna
  • Church + State
  • Propaganda
  • Emperor at altar Christlike
  • Tesserae gold shimmering
  • Chi Rho on shield
  • Soldiers left
  • Priests right
byzantine painting
Byzantine Painting
  • Virgin (Theotokos) and Child
  • C. 1200 CE
    • Virgin of Compassion
    • Mary style=long nose long fingers, small mouth
    • Use of gold back
    • Gold rays in Christ child’s robes
    • Placed before altars
hiberno saxon
Hiberno-Saxon
  • Chi-Rho-Iota page
  • Book of Kells, c. 900
  • Manuscript illumination
  • Initial letters of Jesus in Greek= XPI
  • Gospel of Matthew
  • Holy words into intricate abstract designs
  • Recalls Celtic metalwork
  • Angel, human, animal figs
carolingian
Carolingian
  • Saint Matthew, Folio 15
  • 800 CE
  • Charlemagne’s Gospel Book
    • Illusionistic brushwork
    • Color and modulation of light and shade to create shapes
    • Roman, classical style and motifs, e.g. toga
ottonian
Ottonian
  • Gero Crucifix
  • c. 970
  • Monumental suffering
  • Statue and reliquary
  • Much more dramatic
  • than earlier depictions
  • of crucifixion
  • Distended body, blood streaks
romanesque architecture
Romanesque Architecture
  • St.- Sernin, Toulouse
  • c 1100 CE
    • Pilgrimage Church
    • Cruciform plan
    • Simple ratio geom
    • Ambulatory
    • Transept
romanesque sculpture
Romanesque Sculpture
  • Last Judgment
  • Tympanum by Gislebertus
  • c1130
  • Autun Cathedral
  • Christ as judge
  • Christ in mandorla
  • Souls weighed, Christ’s lft
  • Saved souls=Christ’s rght
gothic architecture
Gothic Architecture
  • Chartres Cathedral
  • c 1150 CE
    • Stained glass oculi
    • Lux nova
    • Flying buttresses
    • Ribbed groin vaulting
    • Spires, verticality
    • Heaven on Earth
gothic sculpture
Gothic Sculpture
  • Saints Martin, Jerome, and Gregory Jamb statues
  • Chartres Cathedral, c1230
    • Attached to columns but break rigid vertical lines
    • Drapery falls softly
    • Distinctive personality revealed in faces
gothic painting
Gothic Painting
  • God As Architect
  • C.1230
  • God creates heaven, earth, sun, moon, & all elements
  • Architect of the world with compass
  • Ink, tempera, gold leaf
ancient japan
Ancient Japan
  • Haniwa figure
  • c 500
  • Cylindrical
  • Low-fired clay
  • Placed on graves for protection
ancient japanese painting
Ancient Japanese Painting
  • Tale of the Genji, c.1125
  • Handscroll - Story of love+intrigue
  • Upturned ground, strong diag
  • Elevated viewpoint omits roofs & ceilings
  • Flat fields of color
ancient china
Ancient China
  • Travelers Among
  • Mountains and Streams
  • By Fan Kuan
  • c. 1000 CE
  • Hanging scroll, ink on silk
  • Precise detail
  • Smallness of man in nature
  • Perspective reads vertically
islam
Islam
  • Dome of the Rock,687-692
    • 1st great achievement of Islamic architecture
    • Use of calligraphy on tiles
    • Site is sacred to Muslims, Jews, and Christians
    • Domed octagon, interior= rich mosaic ornament
ancient north america
Ancient North America
  • Incised Shell Gorget
  • 1250-1300 CE
  • Characteristics
    • Running Warrior
    • Composite profile
    • Elaborate headdress
    • Gifts to the dead
ancient mesoamerica
Ancient Mesoamerica
  • Colossal Olmec Head
  • 900-400 BCE
  • Mexico
  • Basalt, 10’ h.
  • Ruler portraits
  • Probably not deities
  • Intensity of expression
ancient africa
Ancient Africa
  • Nok Head
  • 500 BCE
    • Nigeria
    • Terracotta
    • Flaring nostrils & alert yes are unique to Nok art
    • Expressive face
    • African context= ritual
ancient india
Ancient India
  • Shiva as Nataraja
  • 1000 CE
    • Nataraja=Lord of the Dance
    • Portable image
    • Dwarf under feet= ignorance
    • Nimbus-circle-of fire
    • Drum=universal heartbeat
    • Lively w/ central axis
early renaissance sculpture
Early Renaissance Sculpture
  • Saint Mark by Donatello
  • 1411-1413
    • Contrappasto
    • 1st with voluminous drapery
    • Stirring limbs
    • Holds Gospel book
early renaissance painting
Early Renaissance Painting
  • Tribute Money by Massacio
  • 1427 fresco
  • Characteristics
    • Continuous Narrative Light coming from a specific source
    • 3-D modeling, shading Vanishing Point
    • Linear, Aerial Perspective Contrapposto Roman figure
early renaissance architecture
EARLY RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE
  • Foundling Hospital
  • Filippo Brunelleschi
  • c.1425, Florence, Italy
  • Homage to Antiquity
  • Roman motifs
  • Math= basis for design
  • Perfect geometry
  • Loggia
  • Medallions by della Robbia
high renaissance sculpture
High Renaissance Sculpture
  • David by Michelangelo
  • 1501-1504
    • Formal references to classical antiquity
    • Compositionally and emotionally connected to an unseen presence
    • Head turned to show pent up energy
    • contrapposto
high renaissance painting
High Renaissance Painting
  • School of Athens by Raphael, 1510
  • Fresco, Vatican, Rome
  • Imaginary gathering of philosophers, scientists
  • Summarizes ideals of HR
  • References to Antiquity
  • Aristotle & Plato at vanishing point, linear perspective
high renaissance architecture
High Renaissance Architecture
  • Capitoline Hill by Michelangelo
  • 1537
    • Organized units symmetrically around a central/ unique axis
    • Architecture as human body for Michelangelo
    • Trapezoid plane
    • Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius