The clash of cultures europeans in the americas
1 / 18

The Clash of Cultures: Europeans in the Americas - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

The Clash of Cultures: Europeans in the Americas . Readings: Spodek, pp. 452-458. Aztecs/Mexica--Mexico. Nahuatl Mayan Quetzacoatl Tenochtitlan Lake Texcoco Montezuma II takes power (1502). Cortes Decides to Conquer Mexico.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Clash of Cultures: Europeans in the Americas' - paul

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The clash of cultures europeans in the americas

The Clash of Cultures: Europeans in the Americas


Spodek, pp. 452-458

Aztecs mexica mexico

  • Nahuatl

  • Mayan

  • Quetzacoatl

  • Tenochtitlan

  • Lake Texcoco

  • Montezuma II takes power (1502)

Cortes decides to conquer mexico
Cortes Decides to Conquer Mexico

  • Spaniards Conquer Cuba

  • 1517—Spaniards begin to explore Mexico

  • Aztecs may have experienced bad omens, but an invention?

  • February 10, 1519 Hernan Cortes defies Governor Diego Velasquez

  • June 3, 1519 Spaniards arrive at Cempoala with 11 ships, 600 soldiers, 200 native servants, 16 horses, 32 crossbows, 13 muskets, and 14 cannons

  • Cortez’s translator, Jerome de Aguilar spoke Mayan.

Cortes finds a translator and mistress
Cortes finds a Translator and Mistress

  • Dona Marina is also known as La Malinche or Malintzin.

  • Dona Marina spoke Mayan and Nahuatl.

  • She became Cortez’s translator and mistress

  • Mexica called Cortez El Malinche in some documents

Cholula massacre
Cholula Massacre

  • September 2-20, 1519—the Spaniards fight with the Tlaxcalans but end by winning Tlaxcalan allies

  • October 1519—Massacre at Cholula

Cortez and moctezuma
Cortez and Moctezuma

  • November 8, 1519 – Cortes enters Tenochtitlan

    • Does Moctezuma believe he’s Quetzacoatl? Modern historians – no, documents ambiguous

  • Panfilo de Navaez – May 1520

    • Cortes leaves Pedro de Alvarado in Charge

Moctezuma killed
Moctezuma Killed

  • Pedro de Alvarado attacks Mexica during festival

  • June 1520 – Moctezuma killed

  • Ultimately replaced by Cuauhtemoc

La noche triste
La Noche Triste

  • Spaniards forced to flee

  • La Noche Triste – June 30, 1520

    • Cortes loses 2/3 of his men and many horses

    • Spanish conquest not inevitable

Cortes takes tenochtitlan
Cortes takes Tenochtitlan

  • July 1520—Spaniards reach Tlaxcala and are welcomed

  • July 1520-May 1521 Cortez regroups with Tlaxcala help—builds brigantines

  • October 1520—Smallpox decimating the population of Tenochtitlan

  • Mexica fortify Tenochtitlan like European cities

  • May 1521—Spaniards lay siege to Tenochtitlan.

  • July 1521—After failing to take Tenochtitlan, Cortez decides to destroy it.

  • August 13, 1521—Cuathemoc either surrenders or is captured and the Battle of Tenochtitlan is over with the city in ruins.

The clash of cultures europeans in the americas

  • Inca Huayna Capac ruled generally well from 1493-1525.

  • He had an army of 50,000 loyal followers.

  • The Incas thought he was a god or god-like

  • Problem: Religion and Ancestor Worship of Incas (The name was given to the people ruled as well as the ruler.)

Peru continued
Peru (continued)

  • When Capec died, he was preserved as a mummy and housed in a sacred chamber with other mummified Incas.

  • The mummified Inca retained possession of all estates and properties held in life. Inca nobility managed the property of the dead Incas.

  • By 1525, so much property in hands of dead Incas, almost none available for live Incas

The incas
The Incas

  • Huascar (1525-1532) succeeded his father as Inca and was crowned at Cuzco.

  • Proposed burying the mummies and selling their property so living could have land.


  • Atahualpa (1532-1533)

  • Atahualpa was Huascar’s half-brother

  • He had tried to get Huascar to agree to share power

  • Huascar refused

  • Atahualpa not legal heir but had support of nobility – upset at mummy proposal.

  • There was a civil war and Atahualpa won.

Spanish conquest of peru
Spanish Conquest of Peru

  • Francisco Pizarro (c. 1475-1541)

  • May 13, 1532 – Alahualpa wins, Pizarro reaches northern Peru

  • Did Atahualpa think Pizarro was the God Virachocha, who he believed would return? Or, a Spanish invention?

  • Pizarro tricked Atahualpa—killed him after he got Atahualpa’s gold

  • Fierce resistance for at least 100 years

How did the spaniards control the americas
How did the Spaniards control the Americas?

  • Disease (especially smallpox) was one control – not intentional at first

  • Peru’s population fell from 1.3 million in 1570 to 600,000 in 1620.

  • Mexico’s population fell from 25.3 million Indians in 1519 to 1 million in 1605

  • Native population had no immunity because of isolation from the population networks of Africa and Eurasia.

Economic control
Economic Control

  • Natives were also treated poorly by the Spaniards. They were forced to work on mines and sugar plantations after Spaniards took land from them.

  • In 1511 King Ferdinand concluded that “one black could do the work of four Indians.” That started the birth of Slavery and massive imports of Africans into the Americas.

  • Encomienda Plantation/Fazenda

    • New agriculture

    • New livestock

    • New labor

Cultural control
Cultural Control

  • Paper

  • City Building

  • Race

  • Language of Color-based racial thinking

  • Gender

  • Religion

  • Government