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NGOs and the World Bank Case Studies. Jaclyn Williamson Jessica Phelan April 27, 2009. Review: the World Bank. The World Bank is a bank that provides assistance to developing countries with the goal being to reduce poverty and aid in their development.

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ngos and the world bank case studies

NGOs and the World BankCase Studies

Jaclyn Williamson

Jessica Phelan

April 27, 2009

review the world bank
Review: the World Bank
  • The World Bank is a bank that provides assistance to developing countries with the goal being to reduce poverty and aid in their development.
  • Provides low-interest loans and interest-free credits and grants to developing countries
  • Made up of two Development Institutions:
    • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
    • International Development Association (IDA).
review the world bank1
Review: the World Bank
  • Formation: December 1945
  • Institutions: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; International Development Association
  • Membership: 185 Countries
  • President: Robert Zoellick
  • Headquarters: Washington, D.C.
world bank case study
World Bank Case Study
  • Goals of the World Bank:
    • Build capacity
    • Infrastructure creation
    • Development of Financial Systems
    • Combating corruption
    • Research, Consultancy and Training
  • Water, hygiene and sanitation are essential for achieving all the Millennium Developmental Goals
  • Access to water and sanitation in Ghana
case study water in ghana
Case Study: Water in Ghana
  • Ghana could not afford to provide water to all people equally- poor people lacked water, rich people had water for cheap
  • In order for change, Ghana underwent a major change in both policy and structure
  • Government acknowledged its need for change, and did so with the help of sponsors such as the World Bank
case study water in ghana1
Case Study: Water in Ghana
  • First Community Water and Sanitation Project- a $20 million World Bank project
  • Collaboration with an NGO- WaterAid
  • Creation of CWSA- now fully functioning and supported by the World Bank
  • Results: rural water and sanitation coverage in Ghana is no longer below average for sub-Sahara Africa
analysis of project
Analysis of Project
  • Bank plays a secondary role in policymaking but is vital for financing the water and sanitation sector
  • Keys for success:
    • Strong political leadership
    • Strong communities, civil society, and media
    • World Bank communication and collaboration with Ghanaian people
  • Comments on the role of the World Bank in this project:
    • Bank has made loans available and supported sector reforms and decentralization (good thing)
    • Some sector players in Ghana have the impression that the Bank is stipulating certain conditions before it will grant loans
slide8

What Is An NGO?

  • Non Government Organization
    • A private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development. They are value-based organizations which depend, in whole or in part, on charitable donations and voluntary service, and in which principles of altruism and voluntarism remain key defining characteristics.
  • Estimated to be hundreds of thousands of NGOs
    • Roughly 22,630 NGOs in North America
types of ngos
Types of NGOs
  • The World Bank groups NGOs into 2 categories:
    • Operational
      • Nationally run vs. Internationally run
      • Community based organization
        • Grassroots Organizations
    • Advocacy
brief history and methods of ngos
Brief History and Methods of NGOs
  • History
    • The idea of NGOs started as early as 1839
    • Boosted with the advent of the UN
    • Formally defined as NGOs in 1950
  • Methods
    • Lobbyists vs. Programs and Activities
criticism of ngos
Criticism of NGOs
  • Use of funding
  • Some claim NGOs to be undemocratic
  • Lack of clear governance structure
  • Doing more bad than good (but with good intentions)
  • Aid not getting to the source of the problem
  • Counter:
    • While policies are being formed aid is needed, NGOs provide such aid
interesting facts
Interesting Facts
  • There are actually NGOs that monitor and criticize other NGOs
    • NGO monitor is an NGO based in Jerusalem that monitors other NGO operations
  • Amnesty International allegedly edits Wikipedia entries to rid them of criticism towards the organization
ngo case study
NGO Case Study
  • Look at how an NGO goes about working towards its goals
  • ActionAid is an international non-governmental organization “whose aim is to fight poverty worldwide.”
  • Works in 42 countries worldwide
  • Helps the poorest and most vulnerable people fight for their rights to food, shelter, education, and equality
actionaid international
ActionAid International
  • Challenges governments and institutions (like the World Bank) to better respond to poverty
  • Has evolved from a primarily service delivery organization to one concerned with the promotion and defense of human rights
  • Main goals of ActionAid’s Fighting Poverty Together:
    • Giving a voice to all
    • Linking people and groups with similar goals
    • Influencing the powerful through national and international campaigning
    • Equal Rights for Women
  • ActionAid Kenya
case study actionaid kenya
Case Study: ActionAid Kenya
  • ActionAid began working in Kenya in 1972
  • Currently works with over 1 million poor people in rural areas and urban slums
  • Some major projects in Kenya are in the areas of Education, HIV and AIDS, Governance, Women’s Rights and Food Security.
case study actionaid kenya1
Case Study: ActionAid Kenya
  • Promising signs of improvement recently
  • What has ActionAid done?
    • Peace and Conflict resolution committee
    • Basic community development
    • Basic Rights campaign
    • Elimu Yetu Coalition (education for all, EYC)
    • Kenya coalition on access to essential medicine
    • Thakara women water users association
    • Lelaitich Mara women’s savings group
actionaid themes
ActionAid Themes
  • Empowerment
  • Focus on long-term, even permanent change
      • Not just delivery services
  • Working with communities and CBOs to identify real needs
  • Building on networks and institutions
  • Using community based work to inform campaigns
  • Linking groups to strengthen campaigning work
comparing case studies
Comparing Case Studies

World Bank

ActionAid Kenya

  • Calls on national and local governments to take care of policymaking, Bank itself is primarily just for funding
  • Communicated with locals through other organizations
  • Gets to know the area, community, and what the real problems are in the area
  • Does not just give money or supplies, but provides training and empowerment in order to stimulate long-term change

Both of these projects are still active, meaning there is still work to be done, and more results that can be compared in the future.

comparing case studies1
Comparing Case Studies
  • Both the World Bank and ActionAid focus on the importance of involvement of the local and national governments in these projects
  • Both tried to make more permanent changes, teaching locals in the community how to work for what they need, as opposed to just providing temporary relief by giving them what they need.
    • World Bank is criticized of not doing this enough
relationship between world bank and ngos
Relationship Between World Bank and NGOs
  • Many NGOs are funded by the World Bank
  • NGO-World Bank committee created in early 1980s
  • NGOs work mainly in the implementation of World Bank projects
ngos and the world bank
NGOs and the World Bank
  • NGOs help World Bank endeavors but also are very critical of them
    • Ex: Arun III Dam Campaign (1995)
    • Ex: Chad-Cameroon Pipeline (2000)
sources
Sources
  • The World Bank homepage: www.worldbank.org
  • http://www.actionaid.org/
  • http://www.actionaid.org.uk/doc_lib/200_1_actionaid_kenya_casestudy.pdf
  • http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/reducingpoverty/case/73/fullcase/Africa%20rural%20water%20supply%20Full%20Case.pdf
  • www.ngohandbook.org
  • Wango.org
  • The struggle for accountability By Jonathan A. Fox, L. Dave Brown
  • http://www.unwire.org/unwire/20000907/10642_story.asp
  • http://blog.ngo-monitor.org/other-ngos/amnesty-international/amnesty-international-erases-ngo-monitor-criticism-from-wikipedia-entry-ny-times-features-article-on-wiki-editing/
  • http://www.globalissues.org/article/25/non-governmental-organizations-on-development-issues#CriticismsofNGOsComeFromManyAreas
  • Buira, Ariel. The IMF and the World Bank at Sixty. London: Anthem, 2005