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Mahatma Gandhi: 1869-1948 Consider: Strength does not come from physical capacity. It comes from an indomitable will. The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong. Whatever you do will be insignificant, but it is very important that you do it. Consider:

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Mahatma Gandhi:1869-1948


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Consider:

  • Strength does not come from physical capacity. It comes from an indomitable will.

  • The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.

  • Whatever you do will be insignificant, but it is very important that you do it.


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Consider:

  • When I despair, I remember that all through history the ways of truth and love have always won. There have been tyrants, and murderers, and for a time they can seem invincible, but in the end they always fall. Think of it--always.

  • You must be the change you want to see in the world.

  • You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty.


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Consider:

  • What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty or democracy? ~ Mahatma Gandhi, "Non-Violence in Peace and War“

  • Victory attained by violence is tantamount to a defeat, for it is momentary. ~ 'Satyagraha Leaflet No. 13,' May 3, 1919.

  • - An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind.

  • Freedom is not worth having if it does not connote freedom to err. It passes my comprehension how human beings, be they ever so experienced and able, can delight in depriving other human beings of that precious right.


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Consider quote about Non-Violence:

  • To those who preached violence and called nonviolent actionists cowards, he replied: “I do believe that, where there is only a choice between cowardice and violence, I would advise violence....I would rather have India resort to arms in order to defend her honour than that she should, in a cowardly manner, become or remain a helpless witness to her own dishonour....But I believe that nonviolence is infinitely superior to violence, forgiveness is more manly than punishment.”


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What was Gandhi’s view of non-violence?

  • “Satyagraha” is the ‘force’ of truth and love.”

  • In contrast to civil disobedience which is to defeat the opponent or frustrate the opponent’s objectives or achieve one’s own objectives, Gandhi’s notion of non-violence is:

  • “The Satyagrahi’s object is to convert, not to coerce, the wrong-doer.”

  • Success is defined as cooperating with the opponent to meet a just end that the opponent is unwittingly obstructing. The opponent must be converted, at least as far as to stop obstructing the just end, for this cooperation to take place.


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What was Gandhi’s view of non-violence?

  • The means and ends are inseparable. You do not achieve peace with violence but peace with peace.

    As Gandhi wrote: “They say, 'means are, after all, means'. I would say, 'means are, after all, everything'. As the means so the end...”


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Satyagrapha vs. Duragrapha:

Satygrapha is the ‘force’ of truth and love:

Goal: End antagonism without harming the antagonists by transforming the antagonist.

Means & End: Truth and love.

Focus: Moral power.

Duragrapha is the “force of bias.” Passive resistance:

Goal: End antagonism even if that means harassing the antagonists without personal transformation of truth and love.

Means & End: Selfish Obstinacy

Focus: Physical Power.


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In response to Duragrapha:

He wrote: “There must be no impatience, no barbarity, no insolence, no undue pressure. If we want to cultivate a true spirit of democracy, we cannot afford to be intolerant. Intolerance betrays want of faith in one's cause.”


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11 Principles of Satyagraha to follow:

1. Nonviolence

2. Truth (includes honesty, but goes beyond it to mean living fully in accord with and in devotion to that which is true)

3. Non-stealing

4. Chastity (includes both sexual chastity & subordination of other sensual desires to the primary devotion to truth)

5. Non-possession (not the same as poverty)

6. Body-labor or bread-labor

7. Control of the palate

8. Fearlessness

9. Equal respect for all religions

10. Economic strategy such as boycotts

11. Freedom from untouchability

~ Gandhi, M.K. Non-violent Resistance (Satyagraha) (1961) p. 37


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Series of Rules for Resistance that were proposed by Gandhi:

1. Harbor no anger;

2. Suffer the anger of the opponent;

3. Never retaliate to assaults or punishment; but do not submit, out of fear of punishment or assault, to an order given in anger;


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Series of Rules for Resistance that were proposed by Gandhi:

4. Voluntarily submit to arrest or confiscation of your own property;

5. If you are a trustee of property, defend that property (non-violently) from confiscation with your life;

6. Do not curse or swear;

7. Do not insult the opponent;


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Series of Rules for Resistance:

8. Neither salute nor insult the flag of your opponent or your opponent’s leaders;

9 If anyone attempts to insult or assault your opponent, defend your opponent (non-violently) with your life;

10. As a prisoner, behave courteously and obey prison regulations (except any that are contrary to self-respect);

11. As a prisoner, do not ask for special favorable treatment.


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12. As a prisoner, do not fast in an attempt to gain conveniences whose deprivation does not involve any injury to your self-respect;

13. Joyfully obey the orders of the leaders of the civil disobedience action;

14. Do not pick and choose amongst the orders you obey; if you find the action as a whole improper or immoral, sever your connection with the action entirely


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Series of Rules for Resistance: conveniences whose deprivation does not involve any injury to your self-respect;

15. Do not make your participation conditional on your comrades taking care of your dependents while you are engaging in the campaign or are in prison; do not expect them to provide such support ;

16. Do not become a cause of communal quarrels;


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Series of Rules for Resistance: conveniences whose deprivation does not involve any injury to your self-respect;

17. Do not take sides in such quarrels, but assist only that party which is demonstrably in the right; in the case of inter-religious conflict, give your life to protect (non-violently) those in danger on either side;

18. Avoid occasions that may give rise to communal quarrels;

19. Do not take part in processions that would wound the religious sensibilities of any.


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What was Gandhi’s view of non-violence? conveniences whose deprivation does not involve any injury to your self-respect;

  • The theory of satyagraha sees means and ends as inseparable. The means used to obtain an end are wrapped up and attached to that end. Therefore, it is contradictory to try to use unjust means to obtain justice or to try to use violence to obtain peace. As Gandhi wrote: “They say, 'means are, after all, means'. I would say, 'means are, after all, everything'. As the means so the end...”

  • Gandhi used an example to explain this:

    • “If I want to deprive you of your watch, I shall certainly have to fight for it; if I want to buy your watch, I shall have to pay for it; and if I want a gift, I shall have to plead for it; and, according to the means I employ, the watch is stolen property, my own property, or a donation.


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What was Gandhi’s view of non-violence? conveniences whose deprivation does not involve any injury to your self-respect;

  • Gandhi rejected the idea that injustice should, or even could, be fought against “by any means necessary” — if you use violent, coercive, unjust means, whatever ends you produce will necessarily embed that injustice. To those who preached violence and called nonviolent actionists cowards, he replied:

    “I do believe that, where there is only a choice between cowardice and violence, I would advise violence....I would rather have India resort to arms in order to defend her honour than that she should, in a cowardly manner, become or remain a helpless witness to her own dishonour....But I believe that nonviolence is infinitely superior to violence, forgiveness is more manly than punishment.”


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Gandhi identified 7 deadly social sins: conveniences whose deprivation does not involve any injury to your self-respect;

“Politics without principle; Wealth without work; Commerce without morality; Pleasure without conscience; Education without character; Science without humanity; Worship without sacrifice.”