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Generic Case Review

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  1. Generic Case Review Robert Zaid 2/24/06

  2. Chief Complaint • 59 year old caucasion female brought in after falling down 13 stairs that morning

  3. Consultation for medical management was ordered for our service

  4. History of Present Illness • CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment Pt is a 59 y/o c female who was found at bottom of stairs by her husband who noticed that she was having trouble breathing. Pt is unresponsive and unable to provide history and her husband does not know her history as well. This was her first admission to the hospital. She has consumed alcohol in the past day.

  5. CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment Past Medical History Unable to obtain

  6. CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment Medications Unable to obtain

  7. CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment Allergies Unable to obtain

  8. CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment Social History She is a smoker and drinks alchohol

  9. CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment Family Medical History Unable to obtain

  10. Review of systems General: weight change, fever, chills, weak Head: headache, nasuea, vomitting Respiratory: SOB, wheeze, cough Cardiac: HTN, murmurs, angina, palpitations GI: appetite, n/v, incont., const/diarrhea GU: frequency, hesitancy, urgency, dysuria hematuria, incont., stones, no dyspareunia, no discharge MSK: muscle weakness, flank pain Neuro: parasthesias, loss of sensation Psychiatric- Pt is not depressed • CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment

  11. CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment Physical Exam VS- BP- 113/65 HR 92 11 R 97 General- Pt is well nourished and not alert Heent- EOMI, PERRLA, no vision changes CV- RRR w/o murmurs or rubs, clicks or gallops RESP- Clear to auscultation bilaterally, no wheezes Abdomen- Soft, NT, ND, no masses, BS, no bruits GU- No discharge, bleeding, nodules or masses MSK- No weakness, EXT- No edema, negative moses, pulses b/lSkin- No rashes Ost- Neuro-

  12. Differential • CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment Need to rule out any foul play

  13. CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment What do we want to order?

  14. CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment Labs Chemistry CBC

  15. CBC • CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment 13.6 10.4 218 40.5 Chemistry 2 120 85 98 3.3 22 0.6 Pregnancy Test Negative

  16. CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment

  17. CC • HPI • PMHx • MEDS • Allergies • SocHx • FMHx • ROS • Physical Exam • Differential • LABS • Radiological • Differential • Diagnosis • Treatment Diagnosis • Medical management of hypokalemia with • hyponatremia

  18. HyponatremiaBackground • Maintenance • Homeostatic mechanisms • Thirst • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) • Renal handling of filtered sodium • Clinically significant hyponatremia • Relatively uncommon • Nonspecific in its presentation • Correction • Irreparable harm • If corrected too quickly or too slowly

  19. Hypovolemic hyponatremia Total body water (TBW) decreases Total body sodium (Na+) decreases more Extracellular fluid (ECF) volume is decreased. Euvolemic hyponatremia TBW increases Total sodium remains normal ECF volume is increased minimally to moderately No edema Hypervolemic hyponatremia Total body sodium increase TBW increases to a greater extent ECF is increased markedly Edema is present. Redistributive hyponatremia Water shifts from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment Resultant dilution of sodium TBW and total body sodium are unchanged Occurs with hyperglycemia. Pseudohyponatremia Diluted by excessive proteins or lipids TBW and total body sodium are unchanged Hypertriglyceridemia and multiple myeloma HyponatremiaBackground

  20. HyponatremiaPathophysiology • Regulation • Thirst • ADH • Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system • Renal handling of filtered sodium • Stimulation • Increases in serum osmolarity above the normal range (280-300 mOsm/kg) • Stimulate hypothalamic osmoreceptors • Cause an increase in thirst and in circulating levels of ADH • Mechanism of ADH • Increases free water reabsorption from urine • Low urine volumes • Relatively high urine osmolarity • Returning serum osmolarity toward normal • ADH also is secreted in response to: • Hypovolemia • Pain • Fear • Nausea • Hypoxia

  21. HyponatremiaPathophysiology • Regulation • Thirst • ADH • Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system • Renal handling of filtered sodium • Aldosterone • Synthesized by the adrenal cortex • Regulated primarily by serum potassium • Released in response to hypovolemia • Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis • Effect: • Causes absorption of sodium • Distal renal tubule • Sodium retention obligates free water retention • Aides the hypovolemic state.

  22. HyponatremiaPathophysiology • Disorders of sodium balance • Disturbance • Thirst • Water acquisition • ADH • Aldosterone • Rrenal sodium transport. • Significant hyponatremia • State of extracellular hypo-osmolarity • Tendency for free water to shift from the vascular space to the intracellular space • Cellular edema is well tolerated by most tissues • Not tolerated by calvarium • Cerebral edema. • Rate • Slowly • Several days or weeks • Brain is capable of compensating • Extrusion of solutes and fluid to the extracellular space • Fast • 24-48 hours • Compensatory mechanism is overwhelmed • Severe cerebral edema may ensue • Resulting in brainstem herniation and death.

  23. HyponatremiaHistory • Symptoms • May be limited • Mild anorexia • Headache • Muscle cramps • Severe • Obtundation • Coma • Status epilepticus • Look for causes in history • Seen with chronic disease • Pulmonary/mediastinal disease • CNS disorders • Medications • Poor diet • Intake of large amounts of beer • Ectasy

  24. HyponatremiaHistory • Hypoosmolor hyponatremia • Hypothyroidism • Adrenal insufficiency • Clinically significant hyponatremia • Anorexia • Nausea and vomiting • Difficulty concentrating • Confusion • Lethargy • Agitation • Headache • Seizures

  25. Neurological Level of alertness Variable degrees of cognitive impairment (eg, difficulty with short-term recall; loss of orientation to person, place, or time; frank confusion or depression) Focal or generalized seizure activity Signs of brainstem herniation Severe hyponatremia Coma; Fixed, unilateral, dilated pupil Decorticate or decerebrate posturing Respiratory arrest Hydration status Low volume Dry mucous membranes Tachycardia Diminished skin turgor Orthostasis Excess free water (hypervolemic) Pulmonary rales S3 gallop Peripheral edema Ascites Euvolemic Hypothyroidism Cortisol deficiency Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) HyponatremiaPhysical

  26. HyponatremiaCauses • Hypovolemic • Euvolemic • Hypervolemic

  27. HyponatremiaCauses • Hypovolemic hyponatremia • Sodium and free water are lost • Replaced by inappropriately hypotonic fluids • Mechanism • Renal • Acute or chronic renal insufficiency • Unable to excrete free water • Salt-wasting nephropathy • Nonrenal route • GI losses • Excessive sweating • Third spacing of fluids (eg, peritonitis, pancreatitis, burns) • Prolonged exercise in a hot environment

  28. HyponatremiaCauses • Euvolemic hyponatremia • Normal body sodium • Total body excess of free water • Patients who take in excess fluids. • Psychogenic polydipsia • Administration of hypotonic intravenous • Infants who may have been given inappropriate amounts of free water

  29. HyponatremiaCauses • Hypervolemic hyponatremia • Sodium stores increase inappropriately • Acute or chronic renal failure • Dysfunctional kidneys are unable to excrete the ingested sodium load • Cirrhosis • CHF • Nephrotic syndrome • Uncorrected hypothyroidism or cortisol deficiency • SIADH • Consumption of large quantities of beer or use of the recreational drug MDMA (ecstasy)

  30. HyponatremiaLabs • Questions about lab error • Was the patient's blood sample properly labeled? • Was it obtained from a venous site proximal to an infusion of hypotonic saline or dextrose in water? • Is laboratory measurement or reporting in error? • If an error is suspected, a second sample should be submitted for testing before therapeutic measures are initiated. • Physiological states that show hyponatremia • The most common example is serum hyperglycemia. • Extracellular glucose induces shift of free water from the intracellular space to the extracellular space. • Serum sodium is diluted by a factor of 1.6 mEq/L for each 100 mg/dL increase in serum glucose.

  31. HyponatremiaLabs • A similar phenomenon is observed in patients treated with glycerol or mannitol in an effort to control acute glaucoma or intracranial hypertension. This phenomenon is also seen in patients with advanced renal disease who receive radiocontrast agents for diagnostic testing. • Hyponatremia may be noted in patients whose serum contains unusually large quantities of protein or lipid. • In these patients, an expanded plasma protein or lipid fraction leads to a decrease in the plasma water fraction in which sodium is dissolved. • Laboratory techniques that measure absolute sodium content per unit of plasma water report low sodium levels despite the fact that the concentration of sodium in serum water remains within the normal range. • This phenomenon, known as pseudohyponatremia, occurs when flame emission spectrophotometry or indirect potentiometry is used to assay serum sodium levels rather than direct potentiometry techniques. This occurs in approximately 60% of US laboratories. • Serum osmolarity remains undisturbed, and attempts at correcting serum sodium are not indicated. • Hyperlipidemia that is severe enough to produce pseudohyponatremia almost always is accompanied by a lipemic appearance of the serum sample. • Hyperproteinemia of sufficient magnitude to induce pseudohyponatremia commonly is due to coexisting multiple myeloma.

  32. HyponatremiaLabs • Serum osmolarity • Low in hypo-osmolar hyponatremia • Normal in patients with pseudohyponatremia due to hyperlipidemia or hyperproteinemia • Normal or elevated in patients with hyperglycemia. • Urine sodium levels • Helpful in distinguishing renal causes of hyponatremia from nonrenal causes. • <20 • Hypovolemic hyponatremia • Due to nonrenal causes • Vomiting • Diarrhea • Fistulas • GI drainage • Third spacing of fluids) • Avid renal absorption of tubular sodium • >20 • Hypovolemic hyponatremia • Due to renal causes • Diuretics • Salt-losing nephropathy • Aldosterone deficiency

  33. HyponatremiaLabs • Urine osmolarity may be helpful in establishing the diagnosis of SIADH. • Typically, patients with SIADH have inappropriately concentrated urine with urine osmolarities in excess of 100 mOsm/L. • Patients with other forms of hyponatremia and appropriately depressed levels of ADH have urine osmolarities below 100 mOsm/L. • TSH • Adrenal function • Random serum cortisol levels or • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test • In patients who have taken oral steroids • or in any patient suspected of having cortisol deficiency

  34. Thank you • Questions, comments or concerns