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Extended Producer Responsibility for Automobiles in North America Automobile Impacts Multiple Impacts Across Auto Lifecycle Materials production and manufacturing Fuel processing emissions Metals, plastics, painting and coating Tailpipe emissions from fuel combustion

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Extended Producer Responsibility for

Automobiles

in North America

Ecology Center

automobile impacts
Automobile Impacts

Multiple Impacts Across Auto Lifecycle

  • Materials production and manufacturing
    • Fuel processing emissions
    • Metals, plastics, painting and coating
  • Tailpipe emissions from fuel combustion
    • Climate change- 33% of all sources
    • Urban air pollution
  • End-of-Life vehicle impacts
    • Metals recycling processes, Auto “fluff”
    • Auto salvage yards

Ecology Center

auto production
Auto Production

Materials Production and Waste Generation

  • Largest manufacturing industry, and also biggest polluter
  • Major consumer of metals, glass, rubber, and plastics
    • 60-70% of U.S. lead, iron and rubber use
  • End-of-life recycling and disposal processes
    • Emissions of mercury, lead, dioxins, PAH’s, and other contaminants from material recovery
    • Only 75% recycled

Ecology Center

releases from production
Releases from Production

Materials Production and Waste Generation

  • Major consumer of steel, aluminum, rubber, plastics and other metals
    • 60-70% of nation’s lead and rubber use
  • Releases from all production processes?
    • One estimate: 30,000 lbs. waste/emissions per vehicle (10/1 waste to product)
  • End-of-life recycling and disposal processes
    • Emissions of mercury, lead, dioxins, PAH’s, and other contaminants from material recovery
    • 20 - 25% not recycled, by weight (~700 lbs.)

Ecology Center

clean production
Clean Production
  • Material Phase-Outs
    • Mercury, lead, PVC, other PBT’s
  • Clean Manufacturing
    • Water and powder-based coating systems
  • Recyclability and Recycled Content
    • Targets for high level of material recovery
  • Product “Take-Back” or EPR
    • Material Collection and Recycling

Ecology Center

eu s elv directive
EU’s ELV Directive

End-of-Life Vehicle Directive of 2000

  • Phase-Out of Materials of Concern
    • Mercury, lead, cadmium and hex chrome
    • PVC, under review
  • Recyclability Targets
    • 85% recycled or recovered by 2006
    • 95% by 2015
  • End-of-Life Management Req’s
    • Facility registration
    • Removal of hazardous and recyclable materials before shredding

Ecology Center

mercury products legis
Mercury Products legis.
  • Vermont labeling law
  • Northeast states (NEWMOA) model legislation included manufacturer responsibility req’s
  • Automobiles implicated as significant source, due to use of mercury-containing switches

Ecology Center

auto mercury applications
Auto Mercury Applications
  • Convenience Lighting
  • “Most” pre-1995 hood and truck lights

Anti-lock Brake Systems(ABS)

Other

HID Headlamps

Navigational displays

Backlit instruments

Family entertainment systems

Ecology Center

strategic research
Mercury in Fleet

11.2 tons used in 1996

170 - 200 million switches now on the road

Strategic Research

Ecology Center

electric arc furnaces
Electric Arc Furnaces
  • 120 U.S. facilities
  • 37% of domestic scrap from the auto sector
  • Recent stack testing for mercury

Ecology Center

phase out
Phase-out
  • Hg switches finally phased out in new vehicles at end of 2002
  • 150 tons of mercury still on the road the problem now

Ecology Center

switches in us fleet
Switches in US Fleet

Ecology Center

switch retirement
Switch Retirement

Ecology Center

mercury in vehicles
Mercury in Vehicles

Ecology Center

mercury switch recovery
Mercury Switch Recovery
  • Goal of 90% Capture Rate
  • Both In-Use and End-of-Life Collection
    • Dealers, service stations, etc.
    • Auto dismantling facilities
  • Manufacturer responsibility
    • Financial incentives for dismantlers
    • Responsibility for infrastructure gaps

Ecology Center

partnership for mercury free vehicles
Partnership for Mercury-Free Vehicles
  • Coalition between environmental groups, auto dismantlers, and steel recycling industries
  • Developed Action Plan and Model legislation based on EPR approach
  • Maine, first state to pass “manufacturer responsibility” legislation

Ecology Center

maine legislation
Maine legislation
  • Auto recyclers required to remove mercury switches and mercury headlamps prior to being crushed
  • By January 1, 2003, automobile manufacturers must:
    • establish consolidation centers for mercury switch collection,
    • pay a minimum $1 bounty for each switch turned in,
    • pay for transport and recycling of switches collected
    • help identify makes & models containing mercury switches
  • Mercury switches prohibited from new cars
  • A goal of 90 pounds of mercury removal per year is established to guide program evaluation.
  • Detailed reporting required to track program success

Ecology Center

maine implementation
Maine implementation
  • Law being implemented as of Jan. 2003
  • 3rd party contractor for participating companies
  • Automakers challenged law in federal court, claiming conflicts with interstate commerce.

“Maine’s law effectively forces out-of-state companies to enter the recycling business against their will and, in effect, subsidizes the balance sheets of Maine’s recyclers and disposal companies who are relieved of the burden of having to handle these waste substances.”

Jo Cooper, Alliance of Automobile Mcfc’s

Ecology Center

other legislation
Other Legislation
  • Several other states have legislation pending, following Maine’s lead
    • NE states, NJ, and Calif.
  • Michigan exploring a negotiated program

Ecology Center

issues
Issues
  • Retroactive responsibility
  • Performance standard for recovery
  • Financial incentives, or “bounty”
  • Alt’s to manufacturer responsibility
    • Fees on products; state-run program?
    • “Shared” responsibility?
  • Promoting green design
  • EPR for other materials, “whole car”?

Ecology Center

resources
Resources

Clean Car Campaign:

www.cleancarcampaign.org

Ecology Center