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An overview of legislation and implementation. Producer Responsibility for WEEE in the European Union. Ivo Haenen, WASTE, Advisers on Urban Environment and Development, Gouda, The Netherlands <ihaenen@waste.nl>. Overview of the presentation. Introduction The WEEE Directive

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Producer Responsibility for WEEE in the European Union


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    1. An overview of legislation and implementation Producer Responsibility for WEEE in the European Union Ivo Haenen, WASTE, Advisers on Urban Environment and Development, Gouda, The Netherlands <ihaenen@waste.nl> Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica

    2. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica Overview of the presentation • Introduction • The WEEE Directive • EPR at Member States level • EPR systems options for countries • Country overview with 2 examples • Some concerns • Final remarks • Questions?

    3. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica Introduction • Introduction to WASTE • Introduction to the bilateral project: “Implementation and strengthening of systems that guarantee a responsible management of WEEE, in Costa Rica and The Netherlands” • Introduction to this presentation

    4. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica The WEEE Directive (1) • Objectives: • Prevention of WEEE • Increase reuse, recovery, and recycling as to minimise disposal of WEEE • Improve environmental performance of life cycle of WEEE of all operators involved: producers, distributors, consumers, treatment facilitators

    5. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica The WEEE Directive (2) Key aims are: • Reduction of WEEE to landfill • Set targets for recovery, reuse and recycling • Provide for better product design for improved recoverability, reusability and recyclability • Provide for the establishment of take-back scheme and set up collection facilities, free to use for consumers • Provide a framework for financing structures Source: IPTS, 2006

    6. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica EPR at level of EU Member States Member States must: • make their own choices about how to transpose the WEEE Directive into national legislation and where to assign national responsibility • ensure that systems for separate collection are in place and financed by producers • inform HH, register producers, monitor performance, collect annual sales and recovery information, and report to EU Commission every three years

    7. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica EPR system options for countries (1) • Collective vs. Individual responsibility: • National collective (monopoly) vs. competitive clearing house system • Collection / Recovery Channels: • Retail, municipal, producer • Organisation, Logistics & Treatment • Single Producer Responsibility Organisation (PRO) vs. multiple service providers • In-house vs. outsource • How many categories of WEEE? • Exceed collection rates or not?

    8. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica EPR system options for countries (2) • Informative instruments • Use a disposal fee? Visible or not? • Campaigns or other PR approaches? • Financing structures: • Do fees accrue in a fund, or invoice payment (no fee)? • Cost-sharing for historical / orphan products? • Real costs of treatment or flat fee per type? • Guarantees: financial guarantees, insurance, participation in scheme?

    9. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica EPR system options for countries (3) Recovery Channels (One or more): • Municipal collection: At depots, with bulky waste or by other arrangements • Retail take back on 1:1 basis, free for consumers: all countries except Germany which has no take back • Producer take back: generally only for large commercial appliances, and on 1:1 basis

    10. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica Country overview (1)Collective vs.Individual Resp

    11. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica Country overview (2) • Collective Responsibility • Belgium, The Netherlands, Sweden (operational) • Portugal, Ireland, Hungary Luxemburg, Cyprus (partially operational) • Individual Responsibility • Germany (partial); France, UK, Spain, Italy + 15 others (systems designed but not yet fully operational) • Many delays, with issues still to be resolved

    12. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica Country overview (3) Financing: Fees • No fee for Cyprus, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania and Malta • Visible fee mandatory for Luxemburg, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden • Visible fee allowed in other EU Countries (15)

    13. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica Example: The Dutch system (1) Collective responsibility, two major systems: 1. NVMP: • Ensures collection, transport and recycling of White & Brown Goods • Maintains fund, accrued by Advanced Disposal Fees • Monitors and reports to VROM • Informs the public and producers • Uses both in-house services (transport & segregation) as outsourced services (recycling)

    14. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica Example: The Dutch system (2) 2. ICT Milieu: • Ensures transport of ICT WEEE, from regional depots to treatment facility and outsources recycling • Invoices producers of ICT equipment for collection, transport and treatment costs, based on market share (no consumer fees) • Monitors and reports to VROM

    15. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica Example Spain • Individual responsibility model • Producers must cover all costs for collection, treatment and final disposal, also for historic waste, based on market share • Registration of producers done by National Register of Industrial Establishments (government) • Take-back through 1:1 at retailer or authorized drop-off points • Municipality responsible for primary collection WEEE from HH • Trade associations are set up

    16. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica Some concerns: • “WEEE Directive only transposed” • Collective systems are the only ones operating, while individual systems are delayed and untested • Diversity of country models / interpreta-tions of WEEE directive level increases costs and creates avoidance behaviour • Recovery targets not consistent with sales • Little attention to prevention, reuse and re-design in practice

    17. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica Final remarks • Effectiveness of systems VERY country specific • One EU? Not in implementation WEEE management • One LAC? One Central America? One Caribbean?

    18. Third International Workshop 12-15 November San José, Costa Rica Thank you for your attention!Questions are welcome