Electricity is transmitted over high voltage lines - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

paul
electricity is transmitted over high voltage lines n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Electricity is transmitted over high voltage lines PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Electricity is transmitted over high voltage lines

play fullscreen
1 / 54
Download Presentation
Electricity is transmitted over high voltage lines
928 Views
Download Presentation

Electricity is transmitted over high voltage lines

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Electricity is transmitted over high voltage lines

  2. A Transformer: Converts a current at one voltage into a current in a separate circuit at a different voltage  Entirely depends on the relative numbers of coils

  3. A Transformer: Converts a current at one voltage into a current in a separate circuit at a different voltage  Entirely depends on the relative numbers of coils

  4. Remember….power is proportional to the square of the current: • P = I2R • The power lines have a small resistance, and so the power lost to heat will be P = I2R • Need to reduce the current to reduce power lost! • For the Transformer, V(in) x I(in) = V(out) x I(out) • If you go from 120 V to 120,000 V, your current is 1000 times less, and your power loss is a million times less!!

  5. Demand for Electricity changes over the period of a day

  6. Taum Sauk Reservoir : New Construction

  7. Taum Sauk Reservoir Failure: Dec. 14, 2005

  8. Taum Sauk Reservoir Failure: Dec. 14, 2005

  9. Taum Sauk Reservoir Failure: Dec. 14, 2005

  10. Taum Sauk Reservoir Failure: Dec. 14, 2005

  11. New Taum Sauk Reservoir

  12. “Standard Model” of particles in the universe

  13. Structure of Neutron and Proton

  14. Structure of Helium

  15. Structure of Helium Why isn’t the atomic mass 4 (actually 4.0028 amu)?

  16. Structure of Helium Why isn’t the atomic mass 4 (actually 4.0028 amu)?  Nuclear Binding Energy!

  17. Why isn’t the atomic mass 4 (actually 4.0028 amu)?  Nuclear Binding Energy! Mass of one neutron: 1.00866 amu Mass of one proton: 1.00728 amu 2 x neutron + 2 x proton = 4.0319 amu

  18. Why isn’t the atomic mass 4 (actually 4.0028 amu)?  Nuclear Binding Energy! Mass of one neutron: 1.00866 amu Mass of one proton: 1.00728 amu 2 x neutron + 2 x proton = 4.0319 amu SO….Nuclear Binding Energy = 4.0319 – 4.0028 = 0.029 amu Or, 4.82 x 10-29 kg But, E = mc2 = (4.82 x 10-29 kg)(3 x 108 m/s)2 = 4.3 x 10-12 J (Joining the neutrons and protons to make helium nucleus releases the energy)

  19. Why isn’t the atomic mass 4 (actually 4.0028 amu)?  Nuclear Binding Energy! Mass of one neutron: 1.00866 amu Mass of one proton: 1.00728 amu 2 x neutron + 2 x proton = 4.0319 amu SO….Nuclear Binding Energy = 4.0319 – 4.0028 = 0.029 amu Or, 4.82 x 10-29 kg But, E = mc2 = (4.82 x 10-29 kg)(3 x 108 m/s)2 = 4.3 x 10-12 J One gram of helium (by fusion) = burning 23 tons of coal

  20. Radioactive Decay: Alpha, Beta, Gamma

  21. Radioactive Decay: Alpha Decay (atom loses helium nucleus) ( = Helium nucleus)

  22. Radioactive Decay: Beta Decay (atom loses electron; neutron turns to proton) ( = Electron)

  23. Radioactive Decay: Electron Capture (proton turns into neutron)

  24. Zircon Crystals: Good for trapping in Uranium and Lead atoms (The oldest known zircon crystal in the solar system, from an Apollo 17 Moon rock: 4.42 billion years old)

  25. Meteorites – oldest rocks on Earth Allende meteorite (carbonaceous chondrite)

  26. Radioactive cascade The end result is a stable isotope (for U-238  Pb-206)

  27. A Quick Look at Nuclear PowerU.S. Electricity Sector - Nuclear • nuclear power is major player in U.S. electricity industry • 19. 4 % of electricity • third major source behind: • coal: 46.6 % • natural gas: 21.5 % • characteristics: • despite no new plants since 1970s, percentage of electricity it produces has been growing • many plants being re-licensed for another 20-30 years • U.S. safety record has been stellar • no fatalities, no injuries

  28. A Quick Look at Nuclear PowerU.S. Electricity Sector

  29. A Quick Look at Nuclear PowerGlobal Electricity Sector

  30. A Quick Look at Nuclear PowerGlobal Electricity Sector

  31. A Quick Look at Nuclear PowerGlobal Electricity Sector

  32. A Quick Look at Nuclear PowerGlobal Electricity Sector 61 new reactors (NEI, 2010) Taiwan – 2; Iran -1; Pakistan -1

  33. Nuclear PhysicsFundamental Forces

  34. Nuclear PhysicsBalancing Nuclear Forces

  35. Nuclear PhysicsBinding Curve

  36. Nuclear PhysicsNuclear Transformations • the nuclear structure of atoms is changed by three different mechanisms: • fission: splitting of heavy nuclei into two lighter ones with the releases of neutrons and energy • spontaneous • neutron-induced • fusion: combining of two nuclei to make a new, heavier nuclei • new nuclei has less mass than sum of two original nuclei • radioactive decay: spontaneous emission of either particle or electromagnetic radiation by nuclei • particle: alpha, beta, electron capture • electromagnetic: gamma • these processes are not influenced by physical conditions, e.g. pressure, temperature, etc.