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High Voltage Engineering. Term Project Hazem Hamam 962864. Design of HVAC & HVDC Transmission Lines. Outline. Design of AC TL. Design of DC TL. Design of a 500kV, 2GW AC TL. Design of a 400kV, 2GW DC TL. Economic Comparison. Conclusion. Power Transmission.

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high voltage engineering

High Voltage Engineering

Term Project

Hazem Hamam

962864

outline
Outline
  • Design of AC TL.
  • Design of DC TL.
  • Design of a 500kV, 2GW AC TL.
  • Design of a 400kV, 2GW DC TL.
  • Economic Comparison.
  • Conclusion.
power transmission
Power Transmission
  • Importance of power transmission.
    • Means to transmit and sell power.
    • Distant energy sources.
    • Trading energy.
    • Generation away from cities.
ac transmission
AC Transmission
  • Dominated transmission for a long time.
  • Needs synchronization.
  • Simple & cheap terminals.
  • Expensive towers.
  • Works well for short distances.
  • Use of models to represent lines.
ac transmission design
AC Transmission Design
  • PLL at 5% VD, 30-45o AD.
  • Double or single circuit lines.
  • Margin to minimize over-loading.
  • Number of lines=total P/PLL.
ac transmission design7
AC Transmission Design
  • Entering current.
  • Appropriate conductor’s CCC.
  • Transformer (TRF) rating.
  • Conductors between TRF and TL.
  • Bundling.
ac transmission design8
AC Transmission Design
  • Insulation design criteria.
  • Withstand of standard unit = 15kv.
  • Adjacent centers at 0.146m.
  • Minimum clearance.
  • Sag and tension.
  • Tower dimensions.
ac transmission design9
AC Transmission Design
  • TRF protection.
    • Over-load margin.
    • CT ratio.
    • Mismatch.
    • Percentage operation line.
    • Pickup value.
design of 500kv 2gw ac tl
Design of 500kv, 2GW AC TL
  • PLL = 700MW.
  • Needs 3 lines, margin 2 lines double circuit.
  • P/Circuit = 600MW, (670MVA)
  • I=3376.7A at 380kV.
  • 4 incoming ACSR1033500,54,7 CCC=1060A.
design of 500kv 2gw ac tl11
Design of 500kv, 2GW AC TL
  • Each conductor to TRF 380/500kV 700MVA.
  • TRF Secondary 500kV, 780A.
  • From TRF Secondary 2 ACSR795,26,7 per bundle CCC=900A to first Tower.
  • Line Length = 700kM.
  • Ra=28.175 Ohms.
design of 500kv 2gw ac tl12
Design of 500kv, 2GW AC TL
  • Inductive reactance=272.033.
  • Capacitive reactance = 0.0029068.
  • SIL= 815.1MW.
  • Is=773.65A.
  • Ps=603MW.
  • Vr=512.47kV, V-angle=-0.05o.
  • Ir=660.7A.
design of 500kv 2gw ac tl13
Design of 500kv, 2GW AC TL
  • Pr=565.5MW.
  • Efficiency=93.8%.
  • Voltage Regulation=54.7%. (Very High)
  • TSSSL=908.662MW.
  • PLL=618.16MW.
design of 500kv 2gw ac tl14
Design of 500kv, 2GW AC TL
  • A withstand voltage of 30kV.
  • Switching Surge Criteria.
  • 1 MV Insulation.
  • 34 Units.
  • Two Strings for more mechanical Strength.
  • Min clearance from ground is 12m.
design of 500kv 2gw ac tl15
Design of 500kv, 2GW AC TL
  • Phase-phase min clearance is 12m.
  • Surge Arrestors at beginning, 1/3, 2/3 and end of line.
  • SBD, more wind in the center.
  • TRF relays slope= 20% pickup 68.6A on 380kV side, 52.8 on 500kV side.
design of 500kv 2gw ac tl16
Design of 500kv, 2GW AC TL
  • Sag = 7m.
  • Tension = 31222.4 lb.
  • Lower circuit of tower’s height =20m.
  • Upper circuit of tower’s height =32m.
ac line diagrams
AC Line Diagrams

TRF 1

TRF 5

TRF 2

TRF 6

TRF 3

TRF 7

TRF 4

TRF 8

ac tower dimensions
AC Tower Dimensions

12m

12m

32m

5.678m

20m

25 – 30 m

dc transmission design
DC Transmission Design
  • Converting Station is expensive.
  • Converting TRF.
  • Converting Valve. (quad valves).
  • AC & DC filtering.
  • DC Transmission Line.
  • Pole Configuration
  • Smaller, Cheaper DC Towers.
  • Line Commutation.
dc transmission design20
DC Transmission Design
  • 6-pulse configurations.

Converting TRF

+

DC

-

Thyristor Module

dc transmission design21
DC Transmission Design
  • 12-Pulse Configuration

Thyristor Module

Mid-point DC bus arrestor

AC Side

DC Side

Thyristor Quad-valve

design of 400kv 2gw dc tl
Design of 400kv, 2GW DC TL
  • 400kV DC and 500kV AC.
  • Converting Valves 400kV.
  • 4kV thyristors, (100 LTT/valve)
  • Entering AC is 3380A at 380kV, in 4 ACSR 874500, 54, 7 of CCC 950A.
  • Every 2 conductors terminate in a HV Bus-Bar at 380kV and 1200MVA.
design of 400kv 2gw dc tl23
Design of 400kV, 2GW DC TL
  • From BB to Conv.TRF ACSR 874500, 54,7 CCC=950 in 2 conductors/bundle to the TRF. I = 1800A.
  • The Conv.TRF is a 3-windings 380kV/400kV 1200MVA.
design of 400kv 2gw dc tl24
Design of 400kV, 2GW DC TL

After 20m of ACSR 874500, 54, 7cond.:

Drops negligible

After 40m of ACSR 874500,54,7:

Drops and losses negligible

Delta winding

Bus-Bar at: 380kV

1200MVA

2 conductors entering

1 conductor leaving.

TRF protection

AC Filters

Converter TRF:

V=380kV/400kV

S=1200MVA

3p 3 windings

TRF protection

TRF protection

3p ACSR 874500, 54, 7

2 bundles

CCC=950A/bund

V=380kV

S=600MVA

I=912A

PF=0.9 leading

Y winding

3p ACSR 874500,54,7 2 bundles

CCC=950A/bund

V=380kV

S=1200MVA

I=1824A

design of 400kv 2gw dc tl25
Design of 400kV, 2GW DC TL

Delta Side:

V=400kV

S=600MVA

I=866A

Conductors are ACSR 795000,26,7 CCC=900

Length 20 m drops & losses negligible

3000A

866A

Mid-point DC bus arrestor

+

DC

-

400kV AC Side

Y Side:

V=400kV

S=600MVA

I=866A

Conductors are ACSR 795000,26,7 CCC=900

Length 20 m drops & losses negligible

400kV DC Side

design of 400kv 2gw dc tl26
Design of 400kV, 2GW DC TL

From the DC side of the converting Valve

To the DC side of the converting Valve

Transmission Line

ACSR 874500, 54, 7

3 bundles per pole

CCC per pole = 950A

Total I per pole = 2750A

R = 17.18 ohms

Span = 200 m

DC Filters

DC Filters

V = 352.75kV DC

P = 970.08MW

I = 2750

V = 400kV DC

P = 1100MW

I = 2750

design of 400kv 2gw dc tl27
Design of 400kV, 2GW DC TL
  • Insulation for 800kV.
  • Number insulator units = 800kV / 30kV = 26.67=27 units/ string.
  • 12m clearance from phase-phase and phase to neutral.
  • Surge arrestors at withstand of 1MV.
  • SA at beginning, 1/3,2/3,end of line.
design of 400kv 2gw dc tl28
Design of 400kV, 2GW DC TL
  • TRF protection assumes 30% overload.
  • CT 2400:5 and 1200:5.
  • Slope is 20%.
  • 25% pickup means:
    • 380kV pickup = 115.2A.
    • 400kV pickup = 56.4A.
design of 400kv 2gw dc tl29
Design of 400kV, 2GW DC TL
  • Vr = 352.75kV.
  • Pr= 970.8MW.
  • Voltage Regulation = 13%.
  • Voltage Drop = 11%.
  • Efficiency = 88%.
design of 400kv 2gw dc tl30
Design of 400kV, 2GW DC TL
  • Lower design than AC is for less voltage.
  • 500kV DC performance is:
    • 8.2% Voltage Regulation.
    • 7.5% Voltage Drop.
    • 93% efficiency.
design of 400kv 2gw dc tl31
Design of 400kV, 2GW DC TL
  • Span = 200 M
  • Sag = 8.94m
  • Tension = 31433.82
  • Pole’s Height 13 + 8.9 =21.9m.
design of 400kv 2gw dc tl32
Design of 400kV, 2GW DC TL

Converting Valve

Converting Valve

TRF 1

TRF 1

Converting Valve

Converting Valve

TRF 2

TRF 2

Diagram of the Line

design of 400kv 2gw dc tl33
Design of 400kV, 2GW DC TL

12m

22m

15-20m

DC Tower Dimensions

economic comparison
Economic Comparison
  • Break-Even Distance.
  • AC Cost Estimation Legend:
    • TRF >500MVA, 1MVA=150$.
    • AC Towers 200m span = 80,000$.
    • 1m of conductor for AC = 80$.
  • DC Cost Estimation Legend:
    • 1 Station = 10,000,000$.
    • DC Towers 200m span = 45,000$.
    • 1m of conductor for AC = 160$.
economic comparison35

Equipment

Number

Per Unit Price

TRF 380/500kV 700MVA

8

105,000$

AC Tower 200m span

3,500

80,000$

AC Conductors

12/m

80$

Converter Station

2

10,000,000$

DC Tower 200m Span

3,500

50,000$

DC Conductors

4/m

160$

Economic Comparison
  • Table of Equipment:
ac dc costs
AC & DC Costs
  • 98,644,000 $ for AC TL.
  • 91,040,000 $ for DC TL.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • AC TL higher Tower and conductor costs and lower terminal costs.
  • DC TL lower Tower and conductor costs and higher terminal costs.
  • Economics determines the design to be used.
  • Line length determines which one is more economic.