ICT Policyسياسات تكنولوجيا المعلومات والاتصالات Lecture (7) Dr.Samah Mohammed
Guiding and governing the internet Four organisations have particular roles to play: • The Internet Society (ISOC)(جمعية الإنترنت) is an open, inclusive global internet movement . • The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) (شركة الإنترنت للأرقام والأسماء الممنوحة أو آيكان) is responsibility for :-managing domain names globally touches national control and calls for broader participation in decision-making
Cont… • The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) (مجموعة مهندسي شبكة الإنترنت)looks after standards for internet connectivity . • The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (رابطة الشبكة العالمية)looks after standards for accessing web-based content.
1)Internet Society (ISOC) • a professional membership society with 14,000 individual members. • 150 organizational members . • provides leadership in addressing issues related to the future of the internet. • Create educational and training opportunities. • promote professional development and leadership.
ISOC in education • To facilitate and support the technical evolution of the Internet as a research and education infrastructure. • To educate the academic and scientific communities and the public concerning the technology, use, and application of the Internet. • To promote scientific and educational applications of Internet technology for the benefit of educational institutions at all grade levels,
ISOC Members • Members are : • Companies, • Government agencies, • Foundations • Membership is free to individuals , organizationsand non-governmental organizations pay annually.
2) ICANN • A global, • non-profit, • private sector initiative that was formed when the USA realized that management of the domain name system from a narrow technocratic base was no longer feasible. • ICANN's primary principles of operation have been described as helping protect the operational stability of the Internet.
What is ICANN main function? • ICANN’s main function is to coordinate the assignment of :- • domain names, • Internet Protocol addresses, • protocol parameters, • port numbers that must be unique in order to achieve a functioning, • secure and stable internet.
3) IETF • IETFis an open standards organization, which develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP). • It has no formal membership or membership requirements. • All participants and managers are volunteers, though their work is usually funded by their employers or sponsors.
3) IETF Cont… The details of IETF operations :- • publication of proposed specifications, • development based on the proposals • review and independent testing by participants. • All IETF documents are freely available over the Internet . • IETF moves technology innovations from its research group to the broader internet community.
4) W3C • W3C was created to realize the full potential of the Web by promoting interoperability and encouraging an open forum for discussion. • W3C has a truly global vision of a web that accommodates differences and limitations across continents(القارات). • W3C aims to matchthe web to the ever-changing expectations of users and the ever-expanding power of computers.
Telecommunications regulation • What is the new ICT environment ? • Privatised, • competitive, • responsive to fast paced technological change and convergence • shapes regulatory requirements
Broad groups • They are three broad groups of converging activities are subject to regulation within the sector:- • Telecommunications • Broadcasting • The internet
Regulators responsibilities Regulators have numerous responsibilities and use various tools, including:- • Licensing – granting of rights to telecommunication networks and services. • Competition policy – creating an environment conducive to competitive entry. • Interconnection – to ensure that new entrants are not handicapped(معوقات) by restrictive interconnection policies of incumbent operators,
Regulators responsibilities Cont… • Numbering – developing a national numbering plan, allocating numbers, and managing numbering resources, are as important to voice and data communications. • Equipment type approval – developing and monitoring technical standards for equipment that connects to the networks. • Universal service/universal access – extending networks and connections to households and communities,
Regulators responsibilities Cont… • Telecommunications Development Funds (TDF) – establish and manage TDF to support investment in rural and under-served areas. • Price regulation – particularly for non-competitive services provided by dominant providers, such as basic local telephony. • Quality of service – today’s tendency is to focus on the quality of basic telephone service. • Consumer protection – defining consumer rights, drafting appropriate legislation, education and communication programme.
Policy and regulatory issues There are three issues related to policy and regulation:- • Monopolies( الأحتكارات) • competition • universal service Monopolies:- While most of the developed countries had achieved something close to universal service within monopolistic systems, the same was not true of developing countries. Users in town areas experienced long delays in accessing telephones, and networks.
Policy and regulatory issues Cont… • competition was designed in part to provide a window of opportunity to make progress on universal service, and in part, to increase the capacity of the present to deal with competition. • Universal service (lines per household or number of lines per 100 inhabitants) can be achieved through control or through competition (as is recommended for most countries reforming their telecommunications sectors today)