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Session 11. Media Accountability in Northern Europe and the Anglo-American World . Photo: imago/ecomedia/robert fishman. Media Systems in Northern Europe and the Anglo-American World Hallin & Mancini (2004) – A division of media systems based on their distinct historical features.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Session 11

Media Accountability in Northern Europe and the Anglo-American World

Photo: imago/ecomedia/robert fishman

slide2

Media Systems in Northern Europe and the Anglo-American WorldHallin & Mancini (2004)– A division of media systems based on their distinct historical features

Democratic Corporatist Model

Northern Europe

Finland

Sweden

Norway

Denmark

Germany

The NetherlandsBelgium

Switzerland

Austria

...Estonia (?)

Liberal Model

Anglo-American World

United Kingdom

Ireland

USACanada

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide3

Democratic Corporatist Model: Specific Features

Faded

political parallelism

Public service ethos

Mass circulation

of newspapers

Duopoly in broadcasting

Relationship

to politics

Media market

Unionization, emphasis on

self-regulation

Press subsidies

(gradually removed)

Ideas of professionalism

Role of the state

in the media

Adapted from Hallin & Mancini (2004)

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide4

Liberal Model: Specific Features in the United Kingdom

Quality vs.

popular press

Duopoly in broadcasting

Commercial and unpolitical press

Critical distance

Relationship

to politics

Media market

Wary of regulation and interventions

Unionization,

self-regulation

Role of the state

in the media

Ideas of professionalism

Adapted from Hallin & Mancini (2004)

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide5

Liberal Model: Specific Features in the United States

Regional actors dominate

Commercial broadcasting

Commercial and unpolitical press

Political polarization (recently)

Relationship

to politics

Media market

Objectivity, individual integrity

Strictly non-interventionist

Ideas of professionalism

Role of the state

in the media

Adapted from Hallin & Mancini (2004)

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide6

Public Trust in the Press and Government

– One way of measuring citizens‘ attitudes towards media accountability

General Trends

Democratic Corporatist Model:

High public trust in the press (+ other institutions)

Liberal model:

More suspicion about all institutions

Sources: Eurobarometer 72 (2010) [trust in government], Eurobarometer 74 (2011) [trust in press]; figures for the USA: Gallup (2009)

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide7

Accountability to the state (1)

Accountability to the market (2)

Professional accountability (3)

Public accountability (4)

Layers of Media Accountability: An Analytical Model

(Bardoel and d’Haenens 2004)

Developed by Heikkilä, Domingo, Pies, Głowacki, Kuś and Baisnée (2012, 6)

– Who are the media generally speaking accountable to?

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide8

The Varying Roles of the State

www.persinnovatie.nl/

www.levesoninquiry.org.uk/

LevesonInquiry(UK):

Independent inquiryand policy initiative commissioned by the state

EXCEPTIONAL

Press Stimulation Fund (The Netherlands):

Independent governing body to fund

R&D in media organizations

COMPATIBLE WITH THE FACILITATIVE ROLE OF THE STATE IN NORTHERN EUROPE

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide9

Journalists’ Attitudes towards the State

– Journalists are generally supportive of the facilitative role of the state– UK results influenced by the Leveson Inquiry– Note the huge difference in Estonia!

Source: MediaAcT survey conducted in 2011–2012

Included twelve countries in Europe and two Arab countries (N=1,762)

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide10

Media output

3a

3b

Over professional excellence

Over market position

1

2b

2a

Media competition

Dynamics of the Media Market and Its Implications

Incentives for ImplementingMedia Accountability

+ Market push towards

reforms and innovations

+ Transparency as a potential

niche strategy (USA)

Restraints for Implementing Media Accountability

– Short-term profits principle guides decisions

– Rationalization of resources undermine R&D

Source: Heikkilä et al. (2012: 37)

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide11

Journalists’ Attitudes towards the Market

– Business imperatives are viewed very similarly across countries and models

Source: MediaAcT survey conducted in 2011–2012 (N=1,762)

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide12

Professional Accountability (Self-Regulation)

Approximately 300 codes of ethics drafted around the world

Approximately 60 press councils

exist around the world

Press councils of Democratic Corporatist countries are often regarded as benchmarks – Presserat in Germany– RvD in the Netherlands– JSN in Finland

www.spj.org/ethicscode.asp

www.presserat.info

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide13

Journalists’ Attitudes towards Self-Regulation

– Survey results highlight the role of national traditions (see also next slide)

Source: MediaAcT survey conducted in 2011–2012 (N=1,762)

Source: MediaAcT survey conducted in 2011–2012 (N=1,762)

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide14

Journalists’ Attitudes towards Self-Regulation

– In-house guidelines as alternative for the formally approved ethical code– The strong role of legal departments in UK relates to the Leveson Inquiry

Source: MediaAcT survey conducted in 2011–2012 (N=1,762)

July 2013

Session 11 – Professional Accountability

Session 11 – Media Systems

14

slide15

Tendency: Self-Regulation in Self-Doubt

Council for Mass Media (JSN) in Finland

Struggling to maintain adequate funding

Aims to increase (again) the audience representation in the council

Press Complaints Commision in the UK

Criticized of inaction and lack of authority by journalists,

politicians and grassroot organizations, such as Hacked Off

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide16

Many Means for Public Accountability

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide17

Many Means for Public AccountabilityTraditional (offline) accountability practices are usually preferred by journalistsThe impact of social media is growing

Source: MediaAcT survey conducted in 2011–2012 (N=1,762)

July 2013

Session 11 – Media Systems

17

slide18

Journalists’ Attitudes towards Audience FeedbackRelation to audience feedback is problematic in most countries: audiences are seen as recipients while journalists consider themselves as producers

Source: MediaAcT survey conducted in 2011–2012 (N=1,762)

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide19

Convergence or Divergence of Cultures?

Media accountability practices have developed in tandem

with media systems

Changes depend on transitions in economy, politics, technologies and lifestyles

Globalization

Public Trust

S t a t e

Self-Regulation

”Marketization”

”Internetization”

Media systems are internally diverging rather than coalescing togetherThe models of Hallin & Mancini are to a great extent outdated (but still useful references)

Session 11 – Media Systems

slide20

High level of competition

FIN

NED

GER

USA

Small

market

Big

market

Low level of competition

Media Markets Matter

UK

LESS VOLATILITY

MORE VOLATILITY

AUT

SUI

EST

Size of the market and competition (See Slide 10) play a crucial part in the formation of media accountability practices

Session 11 – Media Systems