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Northern Europe. Northern Europe. The United Kingdom and the Nordic countries have seafaring histories that often led to conquest. The region played a role in developing representative government and industry.

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Northern Europe

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    1. Northern Europe

    2. Northern Europe • The United Kingdom and the Nordic countries have seafaring histories that often led to conquest. • The region played a role in developing representative government and industry. • Northern Europe consists of the United Kingdom, Ireland AND the Nordic Countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

    3. A History of Seafaring Conquerors • Early Conquerors • Romans conquer Britain’s Celts by A.D. 80 • Later, Germanic invaders push Celts north and west • Vikings (Group of seafaring warriors from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, also called Norsemen) invaded Britain, sailed to Iceland, Greenland, and North America • 1066 – William the Conqueror of Normandy conquered England (the largest kingdom in Britain). Defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings. French speaking Normans altered the English language.

    4. Dreams of Empire • Britain – Largest Kingdom and Great Empire • Denmark, Sweden, and Norway became kingdoms in 900s – No Nordic country ever became a major empire • England controlled the British Isles – group of islands that include Great Britain, Ireland and over 6,000 smaller islands. • England becomes United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801

    5. Dreams of Empire • Britain’s geographic advantage contributed to its strength • After 1066 Battle of Hastings, no outside power ever successfully invaded Britain • Became a global Empire and by end of 1800s, had colonies in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Oceania. • “The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”

    6. Moving into the Modern Age • Representative Government • Parliament – representative lawmaking body whose members are elected or appointed • Britain has Monarchy and Parliament, but rulers slowly lose power • King John II, cruel to his subjects, alienated the Church, and raised taxes – in 1215 he was forced to sign the most celebrated document in English history, the Magna Carta– drawn up by English nobles – guaranteed certain basic political rights. • Magna Cartais considered one of the cornerstones of democratic government • Underlying principle – all must obey the law, even the king!! • Trial by jury • No taxation without representation

    7. Industrial Revolution • Iron ore and coal helped Britain to be the first nation to industrialize • Coal – fuel and iron - machinery • In the 1800s, the industrial revolution spread from Britain to other countries (Belgium, France, Germany, and US) • As Britain industrializes, colonies supply materials and buy goods • Of the Nordic countries, Sweden developed the most industry

    8. Moving into Modern Age • Great Britain played a major role in both world wars, fighting as one of the victorious Allies. • After WWII, British colonies gain independence

    9. The Irish Question • Protestant English rulers seize Catholic Irish land and give it to Scottish and English Protestants • Leaves many Irish in poverty • 1840s, potato crops failed and caused famine – killed over a million and over a million Irish fled to other lands

    10. The Irish Question • Irish seek independence, Britain splits country in 1921 • Republic of Ireland (Catholic) became independent in 1921 • Northern Ireland (Protestant) remained part of United Kingdom, still is today • Religious conflict in Northern Ireland leads to anti-British violence

    11. Economics: Diversity and Change • Industry and Resources • Sweden and United Kingdom have strong vehicle, aerospace industries • Produce paper products, food products, and pharmaceuticals • Sweden has timber, Iceland has fishing, Norway has North Sea oil

    12. Economics: Diversity and Change • High-Tech • Silicon Glen – section of Scotland between Glasgow and Edinburgh has many high-tech companies (which use silicon computer chips) • Produces 32% of Europe’s personal computers and 51% of Europe’s notebook computers

    13. Economics: Diversity and Change • Union or Independence • All joined European Union except Norway • Euro – common currency of Europe (people have mixed feelings) • As of 2000, Norway and Iceland were the only two Nordic countries that were not members of the European Union

    14. Languages and Religions • Language • Northern Europe – Germanic Language (When Germanic tribes migrated to the Scandinavian Peninsula and the British Isles, they pushed the previous inhabitants north and west). • Celtic languages – Welsh, Irish found on northern and western edges of British Isles • Religion • Because of Reformation – Protestant is dominant religion • Ireland – only one to keep Catholicism as its main faith

    15. Life in Northern Europe • People live in cities and have high standard of living • Social Welfare • Finland, Norway, and Sweden give families a yearly allowance to help raise their children • Nordic government fund national health insurance programs • Britain has national health insurance program • To pay for these programs, people pay high taxes

    16. Life in Northern Europe • Customs • British – afternoon tea • Swedes – smorgasbord (hot and cold dished served buffet style) • Finns - sauna • Leisure • Some winter Olympic sports developed in the Nordic countries – cross-country skiing and ski jumping • British – horseback riding, fox hunting, rugby, and cricket