Northern Europe. Northern Europe. The United Kingdom and the Nordic countries have seafaring histories that often led to conquest. The region played a role in developing representative government and industry.
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Northern Europe • The United Kingdom and the Nordic countries have seafaring histories that often led to conquest. • The region played a role in developing representative government and industry. • Northern Europe consists of the United Kingdom, Ireland AND the Nordic Countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden
A History of Seafaring Conquerors • Early Conquerors • Romans conquer Britain’s Celts by A.D. 80 • Later, Germanic invaders push Celts north and west • Vikings (Group of seafaring warriors from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, also called Norsemen) invaded Britain, sailed to Iceland, Greenland, and North America • 1066 – William the Conqueror of Normandy conquered England (the largest kingdom in Britain). Defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings. French speaking Normans altered the English language.
Dreams of Empire • Britain – Largest Kingdom and Great Empire • Denmark, Sweden, and Norway became kingdoms in 900s – No Nordic country ever became a major empire • England controlled the British Isles – group of islands that include Great Britain, Ireland and over 6,000 smaller islands. • England becomes United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801
Dreams of Empire • Britain’s geographic advantage contributed to its strength • After 1066 Battle of Hastings, no outside power ever successfully invaded Britain • Became a global Empire and by end of 1800s, had colonies in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Oceania. • “The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”
Moving into the Modern Age • Representative Government • Parliament – representative lawmaking body whose members are elected or appointed • Britain has Monarchy and Parliament, but rulers slowly lose power • King John II, cruel to his subjects, alienated the Church, and raised taxes – in 1215 he was forced to sign the most celebrated document in English history, the Magna Carta– drawn up by English nobles – guaranteed certain basic political rights. • Magna Cartais considered one of the cornerstones of democratic government • Underlying principle – all must obey the law, even the king!! • Trial by jury • No taxation without representation
Industrial Revolution • Iron ore and coal helped Britain to be the first nation to industrialize • Coal – fuel and iron - machinery • In the 1800s, the industrial revolution spread from Britain to other countries (Belgium, France, Germany, and US) • As Britain industrializes, colonies supply materials and buy goods • Of the Nordic countries, Sweden developed the most industry
Moving into Modern Age • Great Britain played a major role in both world wars, fighting as one of the victorious Allies. • After WWII, British colonies gain independence
The Irish Question • Protestant English rulers seize Catholic Irish land and give it to Scottish and English Protestants • Leaves many Irish in poverty • 1840s, potato crops failed and caused famine – killed over a million and over a million Irish fled to other lands
The Irish Question • Irish seek independence, Britain splits country in 1921 • Republic of Ireland (Catholic) became independent in 1921 • Northern Ireland (Protestant) remained part of United Kingdom, still is today • Religious conflict in Northern Ireland leads to anti-British violence
Economics: Diversity and Change • Industry and Resources • Sweden and United Kingdom have strong vehicle, aerospace industries • Produce paper products, food products, and pharmaceuticals • Sweden has timber, Iceland has fishing, Norway has North Sea oil
Economics: Diversity and Change • High-Tech • Silicon Glen – section of Scotland between Glasgow and Edinburgh has many high-tech companies (which use silicon computer chips) • Produces 32% of Europe’s personal computers and 51% of Europe’s notebook computers
Economics: Diversity and Change • Union or Independence • All joined European Union except Norway • Euro – common currency of Europe (people have mixed feelings) • As of 2000, Norway and Iceland were the only two Nordic countries that were not members of the European Union
Languages and Religions • Language • Northern Europe – Germanic Language (When Germanic tribes migrated to the Scandinavian Peninsula and the British Isles, they pushed the previous inhabitants north and west). • Celtic languages – Welsh, Irish found on northern and western edges of British Isles • Religion • Because of Reformation – Protestant is dominant religion • Ireland – only one to keep Catholicism as its main faith
Life in Northern Europe • People live in cities and have high standard of living • Social Welfare • Finland, Norway, and Sweden give families a yearly allowance to help raise their children • Nordic government fund national health insurance programs • Britain has national health insurance program • To pay for these programs, people pay high taxes
Life in Northern Europe • Customs • British – afternoon tea • Swedes – smorgasbord (hot and cold dished served buffet style) • Finns - sauna • Leisure • Some winter Olympic sports developed in the Nordic countries – cross-country skiing and ski jumping • British – horseback riding, fox hunting, rugby, and cricket