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Marine Fuels Where are we? Where are we going? How will we get there?. Sulfur content vs. Viscosity Grade -- 2006. 2006 Fuel Quality by Sulfur Range 0.5% Sulfur Increments. 2006 Fuel Quality by Sulfur Range 0.5% Sulfur Increments. Where Are We Going? *.

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slide5

Where Are We Going?*

  • From: “The Impact of Marine Emission Legislation on the Bunker Industry”, by Robin Meech, presented at IPIECA Workshops on Marpol Annex VI Singapore, Washington, Brussels, February 2006

RMeech@RobinMeech.com

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

slide6

Residue Properties

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

blending to low sulfur specs
Blending to Low % Sulfur Specs

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

blending to a low sulfur limit
Blending to a Low Sulfur Limit

Examples, IFO to 1.5% S

Examples, Residue to 0.5% S

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

slide9

* From: Refining to Meet Low S Bunker Fuel, A. Madden, Exxon Mobil, Marpol Annex VI consultation Meeting, February 23, 2006

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

tanker case study from well to hull
Tanker Case Study*from Well to Hull

SOURCE: Energy Use and Emissions from Marine Vessels: A Total Fuel Life Cycle Approach, J. J. Winebrake, J.J. Corbett and P.E. Meyer, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 57, January 2007.

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

near term practical considerations
Near Term Practical Considerations

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

possible quality problems with low sulfur residual fuel
Fuel Stability / Compatibility

Ignition / Combustion Quality

Higher Abrasives Content

Unfamiliar Low Sulfur Cutter Stocks

Greater Variability in Physical Properties

Need for Lower TBN Cylinder

Possible Quality Problems with Low Sulfur Residual Fuel

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

back up slides section i
Back-up SlidesSection I

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

marine exhaust emissions
Marine Exhaust Emissions

Air 8.5 Kg

Fuel Derived

Emissions, g/Kw hr

CO2 555

H2O 163

SOX 9.5

NOX 2.2

Particulates N/A

Nitrogen 6715

Oxygen 1230

Fuel

175 g/Kw hr

Engine

(~ 7 MJ/Kw hr)

8675 g/Kw hr input 8675 g/Kw hr output

MEMO: Fuel CompositionRatio’sRatio’s

% C 86.5 H/C 1.44 SO2/SO3 95/5

% H 10.4 C/S 89 NO/NO2 10/90

% S 2.7 C/N 202 Air/Fuel 49/1

% N 0.4

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

how does marine transport fit into global emissions
Estimated @ 200 Million MeT/yr ~ 3.5 M B/D*

5.3% (4.2 vol. %) of Global Oil Consumption

1.9% of Global Energy

Global CO2 from marine Fuels 645 MT/yr

Global CO2 from Distillate and Fuel Consumption 9845** MT/yr (3086 MT)

How Does Marine Transport Fit into Global Emissions?

Marine Residual Fuel Consumption

_

=

*based on DNVPS average marine residual fuel density

** BP World Energy Outlook

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

global so x pm and fuel n a different story
Global S from Marine Fuels 5.2 MT/yr

Global S from Light and Medium distillate 5.2 MT/yr

Global Fuel N from Marine = 0.8 MT/yr

Global Fuel N from Light / Medium Distillates ≤0.05 MT/yr

Global Particulates not quantified

Assumes: Light Distillate 1500 ppm S

Medium Distillate 2500 ppm S

Global SOx (PM and Fuel N) A Different Story

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

table 6 container ship case study
Table 6 - Container Ship Case Study

SOURCE: Energy Use and Emissions from Marine Vessels: A Total Fuel Life Cycle Approach, J. J. Winebrake, J.J. Corbett and P.E. Meyer, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 57, January 2007.

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

typical fuel products flow plan
Typical Fuel Products Flow Plan

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

slide21

2 Year

Average

216

181

98

148

Source: “BP World Energy Outlook”

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

air emissions regulations scorecard
IMO Annex VI

4.5% S Global Cap on ISO RM grade fuels

1.5% S (6g SOx Kw hr) cap in SECA area

Engine NOx limits (17g/Kw hr for ≤ 130 rpm

EU 1999/32 and 2005/33

1.5% S SECA Cap

CARB

0.5% S cap on MDO/ISO DMA requirement in 24 nm zone for auxiliary/diesel electric engines

Various Local Area S caps

Air Emissions Regulations Scorecard

In Place

Intertanko March 26th, 2007

air emissions regulations scorecard23
IMO

BLG Working Group report

Submission of revised Annex VI to MEPC

EU

stated plan for further reduction on % S (0.5%/2g SOx/Kw hr)

EPA

stated plan to apply for ECA designation

Cooperating with Canada and Mexico

CARB/CA“no net increase in emissions” policy

Other jurisdictions eyeing SECA designation

Intertanko proposal to require distillate fuel

Broad action likely on PM

Air Emissions Regulations Scorecard

In the offing

Intertanko March 26th, 2007