Planning and marketing of genuinely sustainable marine ecotourism lessons for policy
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Planning and marketing of genuinely sustainable marine ecotourism: lessons for policy. David Macaulay Bruce http://tourism-research.org. Marine Ecotourism for the Atlantic Area (META-). A Two Year Project (Jan 2000 to December 2001). EU Interreg IIc Atlantic Area Programme

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Planning and marketing of genuinely sustainable marine ecotourism lessons for policy l.jpg

Planning and marketing of genuinely sustainable marine ecotourism: lessons for policy

David Macaulay Bruce

http://tourism-research.org


Marine ecotourism for the atlantic area meta l.jpg

Marine Ecotourism for the Atlantic Area (META-) ecotourism: lessons for policy


A two year project jan 2000 to december 2001 l.jpg
A Two Year Project ecotourism: lessons for policy(Jan 2000 to December 2001)

  • EU Interreg IIc Atlantic Area Programme

    • part of the implementation of:

      • The European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) (1999)

      • Aim of which is to achieve ‘spatially balanced and sustainable development for the EU territory as a whole’

  • Department for the Environment, Transport and the Regions (now ODPM)UK

    • Funding (total including partners c.€500000)


The eu atlantic area l.jpg
The ‘EU Atlantic Area’ ecotourism: lessons for policy

  • Bristol Group

  • for Tourism

  • Research (BGTR),

  • UWE, Bristol

  • (Lead Partner)

  • David Bruce (BBS)

  • Dr Brian Garrod (ESS)

  • Dr Julie Wilson (FBE)

Marine Institute,

Dublin

with West Clare

Torbay Council,

with South West

Tourism

MBA Escuela,

Gran Canaria


What is marine ecotourism l.jpg
What is Marine Ecotourism? ecotourism: lessons for policy

  • Marine ecotourism is tourism that is based on enabling people to experience the natural coastal and marine environments in a manner that is consistent with the principles of sustainable development

    • ( A Delphi Study helped in definition)


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Examples of activities that ecotourism: lessons for policymay be marine ecotourism

  • watching whales and dolphins

  • watching sea birds

  • diving and snorkelling

  • nature-based sight-seeing trips

  • rock-pooling and beach walking

  • visiting seashore and sea life centres


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META- Project Aims ecotourism: lessons for policy

  • To generate appropriate guidance on spatial planning (ESDP)

  • To identify and evaluate

    • opportunities for diversification into marine ecotourism,

    • products to enhance the quality of tourism provision

  • To reinforce the economic regeneration and social cohesion of coastal communities


  • Tourism and ecotourism l.jpg
    Tourism and Ecotourism ecotourism: lessons for policy

    • Tourism is reputed to be the world’s largest industry

      • 10% of world GDP,

      • employs 1 in 10 of the global workforce

    • international tourism alone causes over 3% of global warming (more than UK as a whole)


    Tourism and ecotourism9 l.jpg
    Tourism and Ecotourism ecotourism: lessons for policy

    • Ecotourism is thought to be the fastest growing segment of the world tourism industry (10% - 30% p.a.)

    • Now thought to be worth €11 - €19 billion p.a. worldwide (Hoyt)

    • Whale watching alone is thought to involve €121 million direct and indirect expenditures across Europe as a whole (€96 million in the EU Atlantic Area)


    Marine ecotourism as an instrument of regeneration l.jpg
    Marine ecotourism as an instrument of regeneration ecotourism: lessons for policy

    • It offers an opportunity to achieve development by means of an activity that has the potential to be genuinely sustainable

    • Nature experiences can be an area of comparative advantage for peripheral communities

    • It offers an opportunity to redeploy existing resources currently employed in run-down sectors of the economy


    Marine ecotourism as an instrument of regeneration11 l.jpg
    Marine ecotourism as an instrument of regeneration ecotourism: lessons for policy

    • It can help to address the seasonality problem

    • It represents product diversification as well as market diversification

    • Ecotourism tends to be associated with lower rates of leakage, and hence greater multiplier effects


    Project deliverables down load from tourism research org l.jpg
    Project Deliverables ecotourism: lessons for policydown load from tourism-research.org

    • a Blueprint for Responsible Marketing

      • good practice and ‘eco-label’ recommendations

    • Planning Good Practice Guidance Document:

      • policy guidance on spatial planning for marine ecotourism


    The meta model l.jpg
    The META- Model ecotourism: lessons for policy

    • For Marine Ecotourism Planning Good Practice

    • Sets out the principles for genuinely sustainable marine ecotourism

    • Offers advice on action and implementation through 'toolkits'


    The meta model of marine ecotourism planning good practice l.jpg
    The META- Model of Marine Ecotourism Planning Good Practice ecotourism: lessons for policy

    The META- Model for Marine Ecotourism

    in the EU Atlantic Area

    Sustainability

    Principles:

    • Enabling ‘bottom-up’

    • Environmental protection

    • Education and interpretation

    • Balance of statutory and voluntaryapproaches

    • Collaborative approach

    • Responsible marketing

    • Continual monitoring of actions against principles of genuinely sustainable marine ecotourism

    Enabling a bottom-up approach

    Environmental Protection

    Education and Interpretation

    Principles of

    Genuinely

    Sustainable

    Voluntarism

    Marine

    Ecotourism

    Collaboration

    Responsible Marketing

    'Tool book'

    Toolkits:

    Responsible Marketing Dimension

    Voluntary Measures Toolkit

    Economic Impact Assessment Toolkit

    Audit and Review Toolkit

    Community-Based Planning Toolkit

    Education and Interpretation Toolkit

    Transport Impact Awareness Toolkit

    actions for

    implementing

    the principles

    Continual monitoring against the principles of

    marine ecotourism


    Policy at different levels l.jpg

    the European ecotourism: lessons for policy

    the Regional (EU Atlantic Area)

    the Local

    needs

    a transnational approach: marine wildlife ignorant of political or planning boundaries

    A ‘precautionary’ approach: little is known about the targeted species or ecotourism’s possible impacts

    Policy at Different Levels

    • Footnote: a fulltext version of the policy lessons is available


    Policy lessons l.jpg
    Policy Lessons ecotourism: lessons for policy

    • At European level

      • Co-ordination

      • Funding

      • Responsible Promotion

      • Eco-awareness


    Policy lessons17 l.jpg

    At Regional level ecotourism: lessons for policy

    (the EU Atlantic Area)

    Encourage ‘Import Substitution’

    European Domestic Tourism

    Supplement Europe’s global product

    Responsible Marketing

    Enabling local initiatives

    Co-use of (eg) transport resources

    Policy Lessons


    Policy lessons18 l.jpg

    At local level ecotourism: lessons for policy

    Adopt ‘the Principles of Genuinely Sustainable Marine Ecotourism’

    Use Existing Laws

    Develop Voluntary Structures/ Codes of Conduct

    Seek Complementarity

    with existing tourism

    Policy Lessons


    The meta model of marine ecotourism planning good practice19 l.jpg
    The META- Model of Marine Ecotourism Planning Good Practice ecotourism: lessons for policy

    The META- Model for Marine Ecotourism

    in the EU Atlantic Area

    Sustainability

    • Toolkits:

    • Community-based planning toolkit

    • Education and interpretation toolkit

    • Transport awareness toolkit

    • Economic impact assessment toolkit

    • Voluntary codes toolkit

    • Audit and review toolkit

    Enabling a bottom-up approach

    Environmental Protection

    Education and Interpretation

    Principles of

    Genuinely

    Sustainable

    Voluntarism

    Marine

    Responsible Marketing

    Ecotourism

    Collaboration

    Responsible Marketing

    'Tool book'

    Toolkits:

    Responsible Marketing Dimension

    Voluntary Measures Toolkit

    Economic Impact Assessment Toolkit

    Audit and Review Toolkit

    Community-Based Planning Toolkit

    Education and Interpretation Toolkit

    Transport Impact Awareness Toolkit

    actions for

    implementing

    the principles

    Continual monitoring against the principles of

    marine ecotourism


    Responsible marketing l.jpg
    Responsible Marketing ecotourism: lessons for policy

    • Can have a critical effect on the tourist’s expectations and hence on the impacts of the trip

    • Needs to be ‘supply-led’ rather than ‘demand-led’!

    • Local participation (not just consultation) is essential

    • See the ‘blueprint’ at tourism-research.org


    Accredited marketing and management l.jpg
    Accredited Marketing and Management ecotourism: lessons for policy

    • FIRST self audit and review

      • PREPARe is proposed (see toolkit)

    • THEN External Accreditation for a recognised eco-label

      • to distinguish the good operators from those just using ecotourism as a marketing ploy


    To sum up l.jpg
    To sum up ecotourism: lessons for policy

    • The EU Atlantic Area potential to compete with the major ecotourism destinations such as Australia

    • Particular potential for offering ecotourism experiences within holidays to lengthen stay

    • Taking holidays closer to home to reduce the transport intensity of ecotourism


    The meta project fulfilling interreg objectives l.jpg
    The META- PROJECT fulfilling INTERREG objectives ecotourism: lessons for policy

    • Spatial Planning and regeneration implications of Marine Ecotourism

    • Sustainability in a Marine Ecotourism context

    • Transnational outcomes from transnational work

    • Marketing related to

      ESDP priorities

    • A book published on

      Marine Ecotourism

    www.tourism-research.org


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