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Planning and marketing of genuinely sustainable marine ecotourism: lessons for policy. David Macaulay Bruce http://tourism-research.org. Marine Ecotourism for the Atlantic Area (META-). A Two Year Project (Jan 2000 to December 2001). EU Interreg IIc Atlantic Area Programme

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planning and marketing of genuinely sustainable marine ecotourism lessons for policy

Planning and marketing of genuinely sustainable marine ecotourism: lessons for policy

David Macaulay Bruce

http://tourism-research.org

a two year project jan 2000 to december 2001
A Two Year Project(Jan 2000 to December 2001)
  • EU Interreg IIc Atlantic Area Programme
    • part of the implementation of:
      • The European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) (1999)
      • Aim of which is to achieve ‘spatially balanced and sustainable development for the EU territory as a whole’
  • Department for the Environment, Transport and the Regions (now ODPM)UK
    • Funding (total including partners c.€500000)
the eu atlantic area
The ‘EU Atlantic Area’
  • Bristol Group
  • for Tourism
  • Research (BGTR),
  • UWE, Bristol
  • (Lead Partner)
  • David Bruce (BBS)
  • Dr Brian Garrod (ESS)
  • Dr Julie Wilson (FBE)

Marine Institute,

Dublin

with West Clare

Torbay Council,

with South West

Tourism

MBA Escuela,

Gran Canaria

what is marine ecotourism
What is Marine Ecotourism?
  • Marine ecotourism is tourism that is based on enabling people to experience the natural coastal and marine environments in a manner that is consistent with the principles of sustainable development
    • ( A Delphi Study helped in definition)
examples of activities that may be marine ecotourism
Examples of activities that may be marine ecotourism
  • watching whales and dolphins
  • watching sea birds
  • diving and snorkelling
  • nature-based sight-seeing trips
  • rock-pooling and beach walking
  • visiting seashore and sea life centres
meta project aims
META- Project Aims
  • To generate appropriate guidance on spatial planning (ESDP)
  • To identify and evaluate
      • opportunities for diversification into marine ecotourism,
      • products to enhance the quality of tourism provision
  • To reinforce the economic regeneration and social cohesion of coastal communities
tourism and ecotourism
Tourism and Ecotourism
  • Tourism is reputed to be the world’s largest industry
    • 10% of world GDP,
    • employs 1 in 10 of the global workforce
  • international tourism alone causes over 3% of global warming (more than UK as a whole)
tourism and ecotourism9
Tourism and Ecotourism
  • Ecotourism is thought to be the fastest growing segment of the world tourism industry (10% - 30% p.a.)
  • Now thought to be worth €11 - €19 billion p.a. worldwide (Hoyt)
  • Whale watching alone is thought to involve €121 million direct and indirect expenditures across Europe as a whole (€96 million in the EU Atlantic Area)
marine ecotourism as an instrument of regeneration
Marine ecotourism as an instrument of regeneration
  • It offers an opportunity to achieve development by means of an activity that has the potential to be genuinely sustainable
  • Nature experiences can be an area of comparative advantage for peripheral communities
  • It offers an opportunity to redeploy existing resources currently employed in run-down sectors of the economy
marine ecotourism as an instrument of regeneration11
Marine ecotourism as an instrument of regeneration
  • It can help to address the seasonality problem
  • It represents product diversification as well as market diversification
  • Ecotourism tends to be associated with lower rates of leakage, and hence greater multiplier effects
project deliverables down load from tourism research org
Project Deliverablesdown load from tourism-research.org
  • a Blueprint for Responsible Marketing
    • good practice and ‘eco-label’ recommendations
  • Planning Good Practice Guidance Document:
    • policy guidance on spatial planning for marine ecotourism
the meta model
The META- Model
  • For Marine Ecotourism Planning Good Practice
  • Sets out the principles for genuinely sustainable marine ecotourism
  • Offers advice on action and implementation through 'toolkits'
the meta model of marine ecotourism planning good practice
The META- Model of Marine Ecotourism Planning Good Practice

The META- Model for Marine Ecotourism

in the EU Atlantic Area

Sustainability

Principles:

  • Enabling ‘bottom-up’
  • Environmental protection
  • Education and interpretation
  • Balance of statutory and voluntaryapproaches
  • Collaborative approach
  • Responsible marketing
  • Continual monitoring of actions against principles of genuinely sustainable marine ecotourism

Enabling a bottom-up approach

Environmental Protection

Education and Interpretation

Principles of

Genuinely

Sustainable

Voluntarism

Marine

Ecotourism

Collaboration

Responsible Marketing

'Tool book'

Toolkits:

Responsible Marketing Dimension

Voluntary Measures Toolkit

Economic Impact Assessment Toolkit

Audit and Review Toolkit

Community-Based Planning Toolkit

Education and Interpretation Toolkit

Transport Impact Awareness Toolkit

actions for

implementing

the principles

Continual monitoring against the principles of

marine ecotourism

policy at different levels
the European

the Regional (EU Atlantic Area)

the Local

needs

a transnational approach: marine wildlife ignorant of political or planning boundaries

A ‘precautionary’ approach: little is known about the targeted species or ecotourism’s possible impacts

Policy at Different Levels
  • Footnote: a fulltext version of the policy lessons is available
policy lessons
Policy Lessons
  • At European level
    • Co-ordination
    • Funding
    • Responsible Promotion
    • Eco-awareness
policy lessons17
At Regional level

(the EU Atlantic Area)

Encourage ‘Import Substitution’

European Domestic Tourism

Supplement Europe’s global product

Responsible Marketing

Enabling local initiatives

Co-use of (eg) transport resources

Policy Lessons
policy lessons18
At local level

Adopt ‘the Principles of Genuinely Sustainable Marine Ecotourism’

Use Existing Laws

Develop Voluntary Structures/ Codes of Conduct

Seek Complementarity

with existing tourism

Policy Lessons
the meta model of marine ecotourism planning good practice19
The META- Model of Marine Ecotourism Planning Good Practice

The META- Model for Marine Ecotourism

in the EU Atlantic Area

Sustainability

  • Toolkits:
  • Community-based planning toolkit
  • Education and interpretation toolkit
  • Transport awareness toolkit
  • Economic impact assessment toolkit
  • Voluntary codes toolkit
  • Audit and review toolkit

Enabling a bottom-up approach

Environmental Protection

Education and Interpretation

Principles of

Genuinely

Sustainable

Voluntarism

Marine

Responsible Marketing

Ecotourism

Collaboration

Responsible Marketing

'Tool book'

Toolkits:

Responsible Marketing Dimension

Voluntary Measures Toolkit

Economic Impact Assessment Toolkit

Audit and Review Toolkit

Community-Based Planning Toolkit

Education and Interpretation Toolkit

Transport Impact Awareness Toolkit

actions for

implementing

the principles

Continual monitoring against the principles of

marine ecotourism

responsible marketing
Responsible Marketing
  • Can have a critical effect on the tourist’s expectations and hence on the impacts of the trip
  • Needs to be ‘supply-led’ rather than ‘demand-led’!
  • Local participation (not just consultation) is essential
  • See the ‘blueprint’ at tourism-research.org
accredited marketing and management
Accredited Marketing and Management
  • FIRST self audit and review
    • PREPARe is proposed (see toolkit)
  • THEN External Accreditation for a recognised eco-label
    • to distinguish the good operators from those just using ecotourism as a marketing ploy
to sum up
To sum up
  • The EU Atlantic Area potential to compete with the major ecotourism destinations such as Australia
  • Particular potential for offering ecotourism experiences within holidays to lengthen stay
  • Taking holidays closer to home to reduce the transport intensity of ecotourism
the meta project fulfilling interreg objectives
The META- PROJECT fulfilling INTERREG objectives
  • Spatial Planning and regeneration implications of Marine Ecotourism
  • Sustainability in a Marine Ecotourism context
  • Transnational outcomes from transnational work
  • Marketing related to

ESDP priorities

  • A book published on

Marine Ecotourism

www.tourism-research.org

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