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Speech and Audiology for the Deaf Educator. Nina Chacker CEP 803C April 23, 2010. Current Research.

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Speech and Audiology for the Deaf Educator

Nina Chacker

CEP 803C

April 23, 2010

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“Pediatricians' Knowledge of, Experience With, and Comfort Levels for Cochlear Implants in Children”Melody R. Mathews and Carole E. Johnson From The American Journal of Audiology (December 2009)

This study assessed pediatricians’ knowledge and comfort levels with cochlear implants. This is an important consideration for families and professionals to consider when deciding whether or not a child would benefit from use of an implant. Since a physician’s input can make a big impact in this matter, it is important for audiologists and teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing to know where there knowledge tends to be lacking. This will help them to have a better sense of what resources will be most helpful to provide families of deaf and hard of hearing children facing this decision.

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“Classroom Acoustics: Understanding Barriers to Learning”Carl C. Crandell, Ed. and Joseph J. Smaldino, Ed.From Volta Review (2001)

This source is a booklet which reports research related to creating a classroom environment that is acoustically conducive to the speech development of students who have a hearing loss. It examines the link between classroom acoustics and how barriers can be removed in order toaid in speech perception.

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“Is It Time to Look Beyond Teachers’ Signing Behavior?”C. TaneAkamatsu, David Alan Stewart and Connie MayerFrom Sign Language Studies (Spring 2002)

This article reflects on research concerning methods that teachers have used to combine signing and speech in the classroom over the past few decades. The article points out that while philosophies and sentiments towards teaching practices has shifted over the years, and the topic has been researched extensively, the academic performance and linguistic abilities of deaf students has not changed significantly. This article explores why this is the case.

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“Preschool Speech, Language Skills, and Reading at 7, 9, and 10 Years: Etiology of the Relationship “Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Nicole Harlaar, Philip S. Dale, Robert PlominFrom The Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research (April, 2010)

This research project assessed the speech and language abilities of children at age 4 ½ and their reading levels when they were 7, 9 and 10 years old. It also examined the genetic and environmental factors that impacted both while analyzing a potential connection between early speech and language use and later reading skills.

The article reports a “mild stable relationship” between early language and reading abilities. Genetic factors and the environment that a child grows up in have the most profound impact on language and reading while genetic factors play the most prominent role in the relationship between early speech and reading abilities.

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“Early Intervention and Language Development in Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing “Mary Pat MoellerFrom Pediatrics (February 2000)

Vocabulary and verbal reasoning skills were assessed in deaf and hard of hearing children in order to determine if there is a correlation between the age where intervention services were initiated and their abilities in these areas.

The survey found that by age 5, the students who had been receiving intervention services for the longest period of time had the highest vocabulary and verbal reasoning scores—REGARDLESS of their degree of hearing loss. In addition to the age at which early intervention services were implemented, the biggest determining factor in this outcome was family involvement.

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“Effects of Early Auditory Experience on the Spoken Language of Deaf Children at 3 Years of Age”Johanna Grant Nicholas and Ann E. GeersFrom Ear and Hearing (June 2006)

This research examines the spoken language abilities of profoundly deaf three-year-olds who have received early intervention services during their most critical years of linguistic development. The study found that children who received early intervention services developed language more successfully.

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“The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing”Ye Wang, Beverly J. Trezek, John L. Luckner and Peter V. PaulFrom American Annals of the Deaf (Fall 2008)

This study examines the role that phonics-based instruction can play in teaching deaf students to read. As a result of their investigation, the researchers concluded that Visual Phonics and Cued Speech should be used in reading instruction for students who are D/HH. They feel that more research should be done about how to make use of these methods.

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“Phonology and Reading: A Response to Wang, in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing”Trezek, Luckner, and Paul”Thomas E. Allen, M. Diane Clark, Alex del Giudice, Daniel Koo, Amy Lieberman, Rachel Mayberry and Paul MillerFrom American Annals of the Deaf (Fall 2009)

A response to the article “The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing” that uses additional research to address some of the same questions.

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“Visual Phonics: An English Code Buster?” in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing”Lynn M. Woolsey, Susan T. Satterfield and Len RobertsonFrom American Annals of the Deaf (Fall 2006)

This article examines the use of Visual Phonics as an instructional strategy in order to develop phonemic awareness to support speech and reading skills in children who are deaf.

While reading this piece, be aware that there is currently not very much data to support the use of Visual Phonics in the classroom. This article serves as a call to action for teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing. While many potential benefits have been identified, more research needs to be done in this area to determine whether or not linking speech sounds to spellings can be used as an effective literacy-building strategy. However, this serves as good background information regarding what we do already know about VP for educators who think it may be a useful tool for their students.

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“Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Speech Perception by Individuals With Cochlear Implants Versus Individuals With Hearing Aids”Tova Most, HillaRotham and Michael LuntzFrom American Annals of the Deaf (Summer 2009)

This study compared the speech development of people who are profoundly deaf who have cochlear implants to those who use hearing aids.

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Books in Print by Individuals With Cochlear Implants Versus Individuals With Hearing Aids”

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Advances in the spoken language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children edited by Patricia Elizabeth Spencer and Marc Marschark

This book focuses on the developments of speech acquisition for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing in light of more recent technological advances. This aspect of the field has changed significantly since early intervention services have become available and assistive technology has advanced.

As a resource, this book appears to be more objective than most. The authors cover a broad range of factors that impact speech, including manual approaches, cued speech, speech only as well as hearing aids and cochlear implants.

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Here's How to Do Therapy: Hands-On Core Skills in Speech Language PathologyDebra M.Dwight

Provides background about the core skills required to do the work of a Speech-Language Pathologist. Includes guided strategies of effective techniques.

Comes with a DVD that presents these skills in practice—a very useful tool, especially for those who do not have a lot of experience teaching speech production!

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The New Language of Toys: Teaching Communication Skills to Children With Special Needs—A Guide for Parents and TeachersSue Schwartz and Joan E. Heller Miller

A guide to using hands-on activities to promote speech and language development.

This book provides strategies for working with children who have special needs other than or in addition to hearing loss.

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Professional Issues in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Rosemary Lubinski, Lee Ann C. Golper and Carol Frattali

This book includes an overview of several issues related to the fields of SLP and audiology, based on a three-year study of these fields.

Each chapter is written by a related professional.

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Idea Advocacy for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing: A Question and Answer Book for Parents and ProfessionalsBonnie P. Tucker

1997 Edition: This book provides answers to questions related to special education law. It is useful for parents, educators, and any other advocates for the deaf and hard of hearing who may be overwhelmed when trying to maneuver the vast document itself!

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Helping Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students to Use Spoken Language: A Guide for Educators and Families Susan Easterbrooks and Ellen L. Estes

This book provides techniques for teaching speech and language development to young children. The authors feel that children who are deaf or hard of hearing are less likely to be isolated from others if they can use spoken language. Their approach focuses on a “conceptual framework” and sets objectives that encourage children to practice using spoken language in practical contexts.

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Children With Hearing Loss: Developing Listening and Talking Birth to Six Elizabeth B. Cole and Carol A. Flexer

This is primarily a professional resource, which begins by providing background about audition and diagnosis of issues children from birth to age six who have a hearing loss may experience with their speech.

It goes on to provide specific intervention strategies to help children develop their “listening and talking” skills.

It also stresses the importance of parent involvement and practice in natural settings. An appendix of helpful tools is included at the end.

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Working with Families in Speech-Language Pathology Birth to Six Nicole Watts Pappas and Sharynne McLeod

Because family involvement is a critical component of speech and language development, this book links the work that can be done in the classroom with support that can be given in the home.

This book details evidence which proves how much more effective speech and language instruction can be when families are part of the process. It also includes tips for incorporating families in speech instruction.

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Need to Know  Birth to Six By Jill L. Bader, M.A., with Allison Biever, Au.D., CCC-A, and Aziza HydariTyabji

This book provides an in-depth training guides for professionals who are working to help students with cochlear implants develop speech.

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Language & Literacy Development in Children Who Are Deaf Birth to Six Barbara R. Schirmer

This book provides models and strategies for teaching deaf students language in the classroom. It addresses the way that children who are deaf or hard of hearing use language to communicate, read and write.

This textis especially useful for teachers because it targets methods of creating a classroom environment that promotes language and literacy.

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Websites Birth to Six

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VOICE Birth to Six for Hearing Impaired Children

The contributors of VOICE believe that listening and speaking are rights, and that children who are deaf or hard of hearing deserve access to tools that will allow them to develop these skills.

The website includes sections that focus on parent support, education, advocacy, Auditory-Verbal Therapy, professional input and a long list of resources. Teenagers who are VOICE members can participate in web chats, and young people can share their stories.


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Audiology Online Birth to Six

This web resource primarily targets audiologists, but it includes valuable information and research about amplification devices that are widely used to support speech development for students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

The site has up-to-date information from the field in their “news” section where contributors share recent articles and research findings.


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The Hearing Loss Association of America Birth to Six

This advocacy site provides information about communication access, research and instruction. This could be accessed by professionals who want additional resources related to hearing loss and audiology. It also provides background material, such as a glossary and explanations of different amplification devices that may help families make decisions regarding the communication modes they choose to pursue with their children. It sets a tone of support and acceptance, regardless of hearing loss in order to provide clarity about topics that may initially overwhelm people with hearing loss and their families.


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Audiology Net Birth to Six

This site compiles excellent resources about topics that are central to audiology and speech, including different types and causes of hearing loss, audiological tests, the role of audiologists and amplification equipment.

All of this information is relevant to anyone involved with speech and audiology because it is best to understand a hearing loss before deciding how to respond to it.


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Educational Audiology Association Birth to Six

The EAA is an organization of professionals who provide children with services related to hearing, especially in education settings.

Of particular interest is the “School-based Audiology Advocacy Series” which includes information about effective techniques to use in the classroom.


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Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing

The AG Bell Association provides an abundance of resources for individuals who are deaf and hard of hearing. The “Hearing Loss at School” section provides comprehensive information about what services students who are D/HH have a right to. This is important for families to know about so that they can be effective advocates for their children.


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American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Hearing

A resource which provides information for people with speech, language and/or hearing differences. They supply a wide range of advocacy resources.


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Special Needs Ontario Window Hearing

This site compiles resources for educators, including a section of “Special Education Resources,” which provides more specific information about different special needs and tips for addressing them.


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Michigan Association of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Hearing

MADHH is an advocacy group for the deaf and hard of hearing. The website includes an extensive list of related websites that connect people to organizations of and/or for the D/HH in Michigan as well as national sites.


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Oral Deaf Education Hearing

This website describes potential benefits of a family-centered oral approach. They stress early intervention, highlighting many success stories.

You can order many useful materials for free. You can also watch videos of children who share their success stories.


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Sounds of Spoken English: English Speech HearingInstructionWallace House

A collection of audio recordings that provide instruction on speech sounds. It targets issues that arise with enunciation.

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The Itinerant Connection Hearing

This website provides resources for teacher consultants.

They cover different aspects of audiology and methods for supporting students in their classroom environment.


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Assessment Tools for Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing


  • This website provides a list of assessment tools. They are clearly broken down into categories and the list includes tools that can be used effectively to assess the cognitive and linguistic abilities of children who are deaf and hard of hearing.

  • Each resource entry includes:

    • The name and acronym of the assessment

    • The author

    • A brief description of the setting the test should be given in

    • The skills that the resource assesses

    • The age range that the test is appropriate for

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Laurent HearingClerc National Deaf Education Center

Laurent Clerc is an organization established through Gallaudet University. The site links to Kendall Demonstration Elementary School and Model Secondary School for the Deaf. Both are focused on providing quality education for D/HH students, and they provide lists of resources that can be used by any deaf educators.

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Ethical HearingPractices in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology : Case Studies Mary Pannbacker, Grace F. Middleton, Gay T. Vekovius

This book presents case studies about students who are receiving speech services. It discusses issues of ethics in instruction related to each.

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Speech HearingCorrection: An Introduction to Speech Pathology and Audiology Charles Van Riper, Robert L. Erickson

This book provides good background information for professionals who are going to be working with students on speech development. It uses a person-centered approach when offering clinician-based practices.

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National Deaf Education Project Hearing

This website aims to determine how to provide the best possible education for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The contributors want to see legislation passed to ensure that students who are D/HH have their language and communication abilities assessed yearly, that there is always ongoing development in these areas, and that teachers will provide access in the mode, language or signing system that benefits each student.


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Cued speech and cued language for deaf and hard of hearing children Carol LaSasso, Kelly Lamar Crain, and Jacqueline Leybaert

This is an extensive volume of applications for the role that cued speech can play in a deaf or hard of hearing child’s development of language, reading and academic achievement.

It compiles the research of professionals from nine related fields that describe how the use of cued speech has changed over time and how it can be best put to use to aid students with hearing loss now.

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“Educating children Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing : Cued Speech”Barbara CaldwellFrom ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education

This article provides information about Cued Speech for educators who are interested in applying this approach in their classrooms. It follows a question and answer format to describe the way that this method can be used as a supplement to speechreading.

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Speaking Volumes Effective Intervention for Children Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

This is a Powerpoint presentation that professionals can use to educate their peers about speech instruction and audiology. Slides can be omitted in order to tailor the presentation to the audience.

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Parent-Friendly Resources Deaf and Hard of Hearing

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The Deaf and Hard of HearingPublic School Parents’ Network

This website provides a list of signs that a child might have a speech/language disorder

Its central focus is on advocacy resources for parents of students who are eligible for speech services at school. It explains who families can turn to for help in their children’s schools, and gives answers and suggestions to issues that may arise for them in the public school setting.


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“Options Deaf and Hard of Hearingin Deaf Education—History, Methodologies, and Strategies for Surviving the System”By Cheryl ZapienFrom Exceptional Parent Magazine (1998)

This resource provides information about a variety of potential educational settings for deaf and hard of hearing students. The author explains the manual vs. oral controversy, along with the medical vs. cultural view of deafness. She points out some factors that should be considered while discussing different education options for children and gives a rundown on several prominent approaches that are used in classrooms.

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“Auditory-Oral Education: Teaching Deaf Children To Talk”Jean Sachar MoogFrom Audiology Online (May 2000)

The director of the Moog Center outlines what she things are critical components and outcomes of an auditory-oral approach to the education of children who are deaf and hard of hearing. This article may give families additional insight as to whether or not A-O is an appropriate placement option for their student.

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“Speech Club Helps Students, School, and Community” Talk”By Cindy Herold

This article is a useful parent resource because it provides an example of how a deaf or hard of hearing student’s in-class speech lessons can be effectively supported outside of the classroom. In order for D/HH students to successfully develop speech, professionals should encourage parents to remain involved by practicing strategies at home, and finding opportunities such as this one for their students to use their speech.


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Does My Talk”ChildHave a Speech Problem? Katherine L. Martin

  • This book was written in response to the 50 most common questions about children’s speech.

  • Through the answers to these questions, the book covers the issues of:

    • Stuttering and fluency

    • Articulation

    • Listening and auditory processing skills

    • Issues of the voice

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Choices in Deafness: A Parents’ Guide to Communication Options

By Sue Schwartz

  • This book essentially provides parents with an overview of the education settings that are available to their child.

  • These include:

    • Auditory-Verbal

    • Bilingual-Bicultural

    • Cued Speech

    • Oral Approach

    • Total Communication

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My Baby’s Hearing Options


This site is geared towards the parents of children who have been referred for a second hearing screening. It details what their first steps should be and options they can explore after their child has officially been diagnosed with a hearing loss. They focus on the areas of Hearing and Amplification, Language and Learning and Parent to Parent.

The website is easy to maneuver and clearly lays out a variety of resources under subcategories of each central topic.

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Kids Health Options

This website informs parents who are concerned that their child may have special needs that affect their speech development. It gives background on typical speech development, causes of extra speech needs, speech-language therapy and steps to take action.


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Speech-Language Development Options

This is an advocacy website that is run by a speech-language pathologist. It was created to help answer parents’ questions and respond to their concerns in a friendly but informative manner.


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National Challenged Homeschoolers Association Network Options

This website is designed for parents who choose to homeschool their children. However, it provides home-based speech and language therapy exercises that can be used by any families who want to help their children develop speaking and listening skills themselves.