audiology l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
AUDIOLOGY PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 31

AUDIOLOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

AUDIOLOGY. Danielle Billing. Outer Ear The part of the ear that is visible, often called the Pinna, and the ear canal, also called the External Auditory Meatus. Inner Ear The cochlea. The Hearing Mechanism. Middle Ear Consists of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and the ossicles (bones).

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'AUDIOLOGY' - ivanbritt

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript


Danielle Billing

the hearing mechanism
Outer Ear

The part of the ear that is visible, often called the Pinna, and the ear canal, also called the External Auditory Meatus

Inner Ear

The cochlea

The Hearing Mechanism

Middle Ear

Consists of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and the ossicles (bones)

Auditory Nerve

The nerve responsible for sending/ receiving auditory information

Peripheral Mechanism

the hearing mechanism3
The Hearing Mechanism

The Brain

Responsible for processing and interpreting auditory information

Central Mechanism

the hearing mechanism4
Outer Ear

Inner Ear

The Hearing Mechanism

Middle Ear

Auditory Nerve

the hearing mechanism6
Outer Ear

Acoustic Energy

Inner Ear

Hydraulic Energy

The Hearing Mechanism

Middle Ear

Mechanical Energy

Auditory Nerve

Electrical Energy

common causes of hearing loss
Outer Ear

Otitis Externa



Inner Ear


Noise damage


Common Causes of Hearing Loss

Middle Ear

Otitis Media



Eustachian tube disfunction



Auditory Nerve

Auditory Neuropathy

Peripheral Mechanism

Conductive Loss

Central Mechanism

Sensorineural Loss

Mixed Loss

types of hearing loss
Conductive Loss

A hearing loss caused by an obstruction or dysfunction of the outer or middle ear

Sensorineural Loss

A hearing loss caused by a dysfunction in the inner ear (sensori), or the central processing system (neural)

Types of Hearing Loss
  • Mixed Loss
    • A hearing loss caused by a combination of Conductive and Sensorineural Losses
degrees of hearing loss
Degrees of Hearing Loss
  • Normal 10 or better
  • Minimal 11-25 d
  • Mild 26-40
  • Moderate 41-55
  • Moderately severe 56-70
  • Severe 71-90
  • Profound greater than 90
behavioral testing

Behavioral testing

Requires the patient to respond to a stimulus

introduction to audiograms what is an audiogram
Introduction to Audiograms: What is an audiogram?
  • An audiogram is a graphical representation of the hearing thresholds of an individual
  • These thresholds are determined by the individual’s response to tones presented via earphones or ear inserts (air conduction), or a bone oscillator (bone conduction)
introduction to audiograms the decibel
Introduction to Audiograms: the Decibel
  • Decibel levels of common sounds
    • 0 dB- The softest sound a person can hear with normal hearing
    • 10 dB- normal breathing
    • 20 dB- whispering at 5 feet
    • 30 dB- soft whisper
    • 50 dB- rainfall
    • 60 dB- normal conversation
    • 110 dB- shouting in ear
    • 120 dB- thunder
speech testing
Speech testing
  • Two basic types:
    • Speech threshold tests
    • Speech recognition (supra-threshold) tests
speech threshold testing
Speech Threshold Testing
  • Lowest level at which speech can be recognized or detected
    • SRT- speech recognition threshold
    • ST- spondee threshold
      • A spondee is a two-syllable word with each syllable receiving equal emphasis
  • The patient must correctly identify the speech material presented, typically by repeating the word
  • The SRT and pure tone average should be within +/- 10 dB of each other
supra threshold speech testing speech recognition ability sra
Supra-threshold Speech Testing:Speech Recognition Ability (SRA)
  • Ability to correctly recognize speech at supra-threshold levels (reported in percentage of correct responses at the intensity level of presentation)
    • 100% at 70 dB HL
    • 92% at 50 dB SL
electroacoustic and electrophysiological testing

Electroacoustic and Electrophysiological testing

Does not require the patient to respond; responses are unconscious and automatic

ear canal volume ecv
Ear Canal Volume (ECV)
  • Provides measure of volume of external ear canal
  • Volumes greater than 2.5 suggest:
    • Perforation or
    • Patent PE tube
  • Purpose: to test the function of the tympanic membrane and middle ear
  • Method: air is added and subtracted from the EAM while a tone is presented
  • Results presented on a graph called a tympanogram
tympanometry interpreting results
Tympanometry: Interpreting results
  • The shape of the tympanogram indicates the functionality of the middle ear
tympanometry interpreting results21
Tympanometry: Interpreting results

Type A

Type Ad

Type As

Flaccid tympanic membrane

Ossicular disarticulation

(broken ossicular chain)

Normal Middle Ear

Stiff tympanic membrane



tympanometry interpreting results22
Tympanometry: Interpreting results

Type B (low)

Type B (high)

Type C

Non-patent PE tubes

Patent PE tubes

Negative middle ear pressure

static immitance
Static Immitance
  • Definition: the height of the tympanogram at its peak
  • Helpful in diagnosing middle ear dysfunction
  • Able to detect small perforations in the tympanic membrane
static immittance interpreting results
Static Immittance: Interpreting results

Flaccid: disarticulation, flaccid TM, etc.




Stiff: otosclerosis tympanosclerosis, etc.

acoustic reflex threshold art
Acoustic Reflex Threshold (ART)
  • “When a sound is of sufficient intensity, it will elicit a reflex of the middle ear musculature” (Stach, 1998, p.270)
  • The ART measures the threshold a which this reflex of the stapedius muscle occurs
  • Two types of reflex
    • Ipsilateral-reflex of the muscle of the stimulated ear- “uncrossed”
    • Contralateral-reflex of the muscle of the non-stimulated ear- “crossed”
acoustic reflex threshold art interpreting results
Acoustic Reflex Threshold (ART): Interpreting results
  • Individuals with normal hearing will have an ART between 70 and 100 dB HL
  • An elevated or absent response indicates a pathology of the hearing mechanism
acoustic reflex threshold art interpreting results27
Acoustic Reflex Threshold (ART): Interpreting results
  • An absent contralateral reflex could indicate (when stimulus is presented to the right ear):
    • Right middle ear disorder
    • Right severe sensorineural loss
    • Right acoustic tumor
    • Brainstem lesion
    • Left facial nerve disorder
    • Left middle ear disorder
auditory brainstem response abr
Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR)
  • Measures brainstem response to a auditory stimulus
  • Wave pattern consisting of 5 positive peaks; distance between peaks indicates the amount of time between stimulus and response
otoacoustic emissions oae
Otoacoustic Emissions (OAE)
  • Measure of the function of the outer hair cells (OHC) of the cochlea
  • Useful for
    • Infant screening
    • Pediatric assessment
    • Monitoring cochlear function
put it all together
Put it all together…
  • By using a combination of behavioral, electroacoustic, and electrophysiological testing through individual analysis and crosschecking, a proper diagnosis and treatment of audiological disorders can occur
the end

The End

…or is it?